Ancient and huge trees



Magnificent trunks of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), soaring towards the sky, Humboldt Redwood State Park, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



People, gathered at the foot of a huge tree, Myanmar. Many women and children in Myanmar smear a white paste, called thanaka, in their face to protect the skin against the sun, and it also makes the skin smooth. This paste is made from branches of the orange jessamine tree (Murraya paniculata). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Planted row of ancient cypresses, near Manchester, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



For some reason or other, this stump of a giant tree has been allowed to remain in the middle of agricultural land near Ohakune, New Zealand. The stump ’lives’ on, as several bushes have taken root in its top. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The Chinese Hemlock Nature Trail leads through montane monsoon forest in Taipingshan National Forest, eastern Taiwan. In this picture, the trail is passing beneath the roots of an ancient tree. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The root net of a toppled conifer, photographed with a very wide-angled lens, Stora Sjöfallet National Park, Lapland, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Fungi, growing on the trunk of a burned forest tree, Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Old and giant trees appeal to most people. Standing under a huge, gnarled trunk, thousands of years old, makes the majority of us feel very humble indeed.

In the old days, however, most people had an entirely different view of these giant beings. Everywhere on the planet, huge tracts of thousand-year-old forests were ruthlessly cut down by the lumber industry, or to make way for farming or urbanization.

Even today, there are well-educated people who do not appreciate old trees. Danish author Thorkild Bjørnvig (1918-2004) once told me about an incident, which took place on his residential island, Samsø. One of the residents in the local community lived in a farmhouse, in front of which grew an enormous old horsechestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum). One day, Bjørnvig noticed that the tree had disappeared, and he asked the owner why. This was his answer: “For a long time, that tree has been a thorn in my flesh!”

Below, a number of trees are described, presented in alphabetical order according to family, generic, and specific name.





Liquidambar styraciflua American sweetgum
Formerly, this species was placed in the witch-hazel family (Hamamelidaceae), but has now been transferred to a separate family. It is known by a number of other popular names, including hazel pine, bilsted, redgum, satin-walnut, and alligator-wood. It is native to south-eastern United States, and is also found in montane areas of southern Mexico and Central America.

Leaves of sweetgum are almost star-shaped, with 5 to 7 pointed lobes, and the fruits are ball-shaped, hard, and spiky.

The generic name is from the Latin liquidus (‘liquid’) and the Arabic anbar, which, via the Moors, became ambar in Spanish. Amber from members of this genus was formerly used in the cosmetic industry. The specific name is Latin, meaning ‘flowing with storax’ (a plant resin), likewise alluding to the gum.

A close relative, Chinese sweetgum (L. formosana), is presented on the page Autumn.



Deeply furrowed and corky bark of sweetgum, Point of Rocks Park, Richmond, Virginia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Apocynaceae Dogbane family


Alstonia scholaris Blackboard tree
This tree is also known by several other names, including devil tree, milkwood-pine, and white cheesewood. It grows in mixed forests from the Indian Subcontinent eastwards to south-western China, and thence south through Southeast Asia and the Philippines to the Indonesian Archipelago and New Guinea to northern Australia. Bark and leaves are utilized medicinally for headache, influenza, bronchitis, and pneumonia, and the wood is used for making coffins.



Bark of a huge blackboard tree, Taichung, Taiwan. This species is very commonly planted on the island. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)






Ilex opaca American holly
A medium-sized evergreen tree, growing to 30 m tall. The trunk diameter is usually less than 50 cm, but may sometimes be up to 1.2 m. It is native to the south-eastern United States, from Massachusetts and southern New York State southwards to northern Florida, and thence westwards to eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas.



Trunk of American holly with lichens, Fire Island, Long Island, New York State. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Araucariaceae Araucaria family


Agathis australis Southern kauri tree
This iconic species is restricted to the northernmost part of New Zealand’s North Island. It is among the world’s largest trees, growing to over 50 m tall, with trunk girths up to 16 m. Although their age is difficult to estimate, it is believed that they may live for more than 2,000 years. They are out of an ancient group of trees, which first appeared during the Jurassic period (190 to 135 million years ago).

Today, the largest kauri is found in Waipoua Forest. It is called Tane Mahuta (‘Lord of the Forest’), which refers to Tane, the Maori god of trees and birds. The height of this majestic tree is c. 46 m, its girth is about 15.5 m, and its volume is estimated at 516 m3. In the past, even larger specimens were known. The largest on record, called The Great Ghost, was about 8.5 m in diameter, with a girth of c. 26.9 m. It was consumed by fire around 1890.

When the Maoris settled in New Zealand about 700 years ago, small-scale usage of kauri began. The timber was utilized to construct houses and boats, and for carving. Kauri trees exude a gum through cracks in the trunks, and, over the years, large quantities are built up in the soil beneath the trees. The Maoris used this gum to start fires, and also for chewing, after it had been soaked in water and mixed with the milky juice of common sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus).

A full-scale destruction of these magnificent forests began with the arrival of Europeans in the 1700s and 1800s. Sailors found that the trunks of young kauri were ideal for ships’ masts and spars, and settlers utilized the high-quality timber of mature trees for construction. Kauri gum was also used at a large scale to manufacture varnishes and other products. The gum was obtained through digging or, more destructively, by bleeding live trees. Large areas of kauri forest were also cleared for farmland until as late as the mid-1900s.

It has been estimated that kauri forests once covered between 10,000 and 15,000 km2. Today, a tiny fraction, c. 70 km2, exists, corresponding to 0.5% of the original extent.

Now, the kauri is facing a new threat, called kauri dieback. This disease is caused by a fungus, Phytophthora agathidicida, which attacks the trees through their shallow root system, eventually causing their death. There is no known cure for this disease, and its spread can only be reduced by avoiding trampling near kauri roots. (Source:



The largest known kauri is Tane Mahuta (‘Lord of the Forest’), which may be more than 1,500 years old. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Araucaria araucana Pehuén, Chilean monkey-puzzle tree
Grand forests of this tree are ubiquitous in Parque Nacional Conguillio, and a few other places in the Andes. Elsewhere, it is endangered. This species and other Chilean wildlife are described on the page Travel episodes – Chile 2011: The white forest.



Forest of pehuén, Parque Nacional Conguillio, Chile. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This gigantic pehuén, called Araucaria Madre (‘Mother of monkey-puzzle trees’), is about 1,800 years old, 50 m tall, and has a diameter of c. 2.1 m. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Arecaceae Palms


Jubaea chilensis Chilean palm
This stately tree, the only member of the genus, is endemic to a small area in central Chile. It may grow to 25 m tall, with a very thick trunk, sometimes up to 1.3 m in diameter. The dark green leaves are pinnate, to 5 m long, with pinnae to 50 cm long.



A stronghold of the Chilean palm is La Campana National Park, where these pictures were taken. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Phoenix canariensis Canary Islands date palm
As its name implies, this species is endemic to the Canary Islands. It grows to 20 m tall, occasionally to 40 m, with pinnate leaves to 6 m long and with 80-100 leaflets on both sides of the central rachis. The fruit is an oval, yellow to orange drupe, to 2 cm long. It is edible, but not very tasty.



Old Canary Islands date palm, Barranco Mogán, Gran Canaria. The withered leaves, which remain on the trunk for several years, have been chopped off. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Washingtonia filifera California fan palm
This impressive palm, to 20 m tall, is native to the Mohave and Colorado Deserts in southern California, northern Baja California, and a few places in south-western Arizona. The scattered growths thrive in oases with springs. The trunk may reach 1 m in diameter, and the huge fan-shaped leaves grow to 4 m long, with leaflets to 2 m.



California fan palms with hanging ‘bags’ of old leaves, Oasis of Mara, Joshua Tree National Park, California. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Betulaceae Birch family


Alnus glutinosa Common alder
Also known as black alder, this species is native to the major part of Europe, south-western Asia, and northern Africa. It thrives in wet locations, living in symbiosis with a nitrogen-fixing actinomycete bacterium, Frankia alni. These bacteria cause the growth of coral-like nodules on the roots of the trees, inside which thick-walled cells are formed, housing the bacteria. Protected here against the harmful oxygen of the air, the bacteria change nitrogen into nitrates, which can be utilized by the alder trees. This is the reason that these trees are able to grow in oxygen-poor soils. The nitrates enrich the soil, making it possible for other plants to grow in these poor soils.



Trunk of an ancient common alder, Funen, Denmark. Note the ceramic insulator to the right, almost overgrown by bark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Lars Skipper, admiring an old common alder, growing at the shore of Lake Mossø, Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



A row of old alders along Gudenåen River, eastern Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Betula pendula Silver birch
Betula pubescens Downy birch
These species are both widespread and common in Europe, in the Caucasus, and eastwards across Siberia to the Pacific, and silver birch is also found in China and Japan. The name birch is derived from Proto-Germanic berko, in all probability rooted in Sanskrit bhurja, the name of a species of birch.

In Norse religion, the birch represented Freya, the Great Mother Goddess, and among Celtic peoples the star goddess, Arianrhod, whose caer (‘throne’) was situated in the Corona Borealis (northern lights). She was invoked through the birch to assist in births and initiations.

Previously, the soft birch wood was carved into numerous items, including furniture, cups, bowls, bobbins, cradles, and toys. The bark separates into thin strips, which peels off easily. It is tough, water proof and rot proof, making it perfect as roofing material. It was also utilized to make buckets, baskets, bottles, plates, and shoes, and for writing and drawing. Due to its content of volatile oils, rolled-up bark could be used as torches.

Danish author and artist Claus Bering (1919-2001) once sat on his terrasse, writing, and from a large birch tree a lot of seeds and seed scales blew into his hair and his coffee. He was curious to know how many seeds a big birch tree like that would produce, så he chose a twig with average fertility. There were 12 female catkins on it. He plucked these 12 catkins, pulled them apart, and counted the number of seeds in each of them. On average they contained 350 seeds. Then he counted the number of branches on the tree, about 50, each having on average 32 twigs. Now the calculation was simple: 50x32x12x350 = 6.720.000 seeds. An impressive number!



Old silver birch, Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Bark of an old downy birch, Ismanstorp, Öland, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Carpinus betulus Common hornbeam
A medium-sized tree, often to 25 m tall, sometimes to 30 m. It is found in the major part of Europe, from England, Denmark, and southern Sweden southwards to the Mediterranean, eastwards to western Russia, the Caucasus, and northern Iran.



The furrowed bark of an old hornbeam, Nature Reserve Vorsø, Horsens Fjord, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Corylus avellana European hazel
This tree is found in the major part of Europe, eastwards to the Ural Mountains, Caucasus, and the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. Usually, it is a large shrub to about 10 m tall, sometimes to 15 m, typically with many slender trunks clustered together. It prefers sunny places, and specimens in forests are often low and stunted. The oval nut, to 2 cm long, is partly covered by a leafy involucre, called the husk.

The specific name was given by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), who took this name from De historia stirpium commentarii insignes, published by German physician and botanist Leonhard Fuchs (1501-1566) in 1542, in which it was described as Avellana nux sylvestris (‘forest nut of Avella’, a town in southern Italy). In turn, that appellation was taken from Naturalis Historia, by Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.).

The succession of a wild growth of hazel is described on the page Nature Reserve Vorsø: Expanding wilderness.



The base of an ancient hazel, Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Numerous trunks of an old common hazel, Zealand, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Casuarinaceae Ironwood family


Casuarina equisetifolia
Ironwood trees, genus Casuarina, are native to South and Southeast Asia, Australia, and Oceania. Several species have been planted, or accidentally introduced, in many other places, and they are often regarded as invasive plants. Casuarina equisetifolia, in the United States called Australian pine, is a pest in Florida. The specific name means ‘with foliage like Equisetum’ (horsetail), referring to the articulate leaves.



Casuarina equisetifolia has been extensively planted on Cretan beaches. This ancient specimen was observed on Preveli Beach. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This row of white-painted Casuarina equisetifolia was observed on the Rodopos Peninsula, Crete. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Celastraceae Bittersweet family


Euonymus europaeus Common spindle tree
This is a small tree, rarely reaching a height of 10 m, with a trunk to 20 cm across. It is widely distributed in Europe, from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, and the Baltic countries southwards to the Mediterranean, eastwards to central Russia and the Caucasus. It is mainly growing at forest edges.



This old spindle tree has toppled, but is still full of life, Nature Reserve Vorsø, Horsens Fjord, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Combretaceae Leadwood family


A genus of large trees, counting about 100 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The generic name is from the Latin terminus (‘end’), referring to the fact that the leaves appear at the very tips of the shoots. A selection of pictures, depicting the glorious winter foliage of the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa), may be seen on the page Autumn.


Terminalia mantaly Madagascar almond, umbrella tree
This species is a native of Madagascar, where it grows in forests up to an altitude of 1,500 m. It is widely planted as an ornamental in warmer countries around the world.



In Taiwan, Terminalia mantaly is very commonly planted in cities. This tree in Taichung was planted in a square bed, which proved too small, and as it grew larger, its roots spread onto the sidewalk. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Terminalia myriocarpa East Indian almond
This tree can grow to huge dimensions, to a height of 40 m, with a diameter up to 4 m, and with large buttresses, sometimes to 5 m tall. It is distributed from eastern Nepal eastwards to Southeast Asia and southern China, growing in forests up to an elevation of 1,500 m.



This magnificent Terminalia myriocarpa in Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam, has been dubbed ‘Thousand-year-old tree’. Mosses and algae are growing on the trunk. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Cupressaceae Cypress family


Chamaecyparis formosensis Red Taiwan cypress
Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana Yellow Taiwan cypress
These two species of false cypresses are both native to Taiwan, growing in areas of high precipitation, at elevations between 1,300 and 2,600 m.

Following the Sino-Japanese war of 1894, Taiwan was ceded to Japan and became a Japanese colony. In 1912, the Japanese government began large-scale logging of false cypresses in the Alishan area, and where the Alishan Mountain Railway today passes through areas at higher elevations, cypress forests once covered the entire landscape.

Soon, the forests on Taiping Shan, Ilan County, and Pahsien Shan, Nantou County, were also opened up for logging, and later also many other areas. An endless stream of cypress logs flowed out of the mountains, to be transported across the sea to Japan, where they were used for various purposes, including pillars for Shinto shrines.

Early surveys estimated that, before logging began, about 20 million ancient false cypresses were found in Taiwan. Of the approximately 300,000 false cypresses at Alishan, which were more than 1,000 years old, all that remains today is a few giant trees, scattered among introduced Japanese red cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

Large-scale logging of these magnificent trees was continued, even after the Japanese left Taiwan in 1945 – in fact, right up to 1989. Today, the only larger areas of ancient false cypresses are forests on Hsiukulan Shan, central Taiwan, and on Chilan Shan, Ilan County. (Source: Chang Chin-ju, Ancient Giants of the Forest – Taiwan’s False Cypresses)



The oldest and largest Taiwan red cypress in Alishan National Forest, c. 2000 years old, height 43.5 m, circumference 13 m. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Red cypress, c. 1,000 years old, Alishan National Forest. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The red cypresses in the picture below, likewise in Alishan National Forest, are called ‘Three Generations Trees’. The first generation is a decayed trunk, lying on the ground. A seed sprouted in this trunk and lived for several hundred years before dying. A third tree has sprouted in the remains and is now a vigorous tree.



(Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Stump of an old red cypress, Alishan National Forest. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The lower part of the trunk of an ancient red cypress, Dasyueshan National Forest. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Two red cypresses in Yushan National Park, named the Fuci Trees, were killed by a forest fire in 1963. The dried-out trunks remained standing for many years, but one of them fell in 2019. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This trail in Alishan National Forest has been worn by so many visitors’ feet that the roots of a red cypress has appeared on the surface. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Yellow cypresses, 600-700 years old, Mingchih National Forest. The lower picture shows a close-up of the bark, with a climber. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Cunninghamia konishii Lunta spruce
This tree is named for a mountain in Taiwan, Luan Ta, where it was first found in 1908. In the wild, the occurrence of this species is restricted to Taiwan, a few locations in Laos and Vietnam, and perhaps the Fujian Province of south-eastern China. According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2017, it is endangered in the wild.



This Lunta spruce in Taroko National Park, Taiwan, called ‘Pilu Sacred Tree’, is c. 3,200 years old and 40-50 m high. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Cupressus macrocarpa Monterey cypress
This tree, also known as Hesperocyparis macrocarpa, is native to central California, formerly growing only on two small locations, Point Lobos State Park and Pebble Beach, both in Monterey County, south of San Francisco. Today, however, it has been planted in many other areas along the Pacific Coast, and also in Europe, New Zealand, South Africa, and elsewhere.



Both of these ancient Monterey cypresses were encountered in Point Lobos State Park. In the lower picture, the trunk is covered in an orange alga, Trentepohlia aurea. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Cupressus pigmaea Mendocino cypress
By some authorities, this tree, which grows only in the Mendocino area north of San Francisco, California, is treated as a separate species. It is also known as Hesperocyparis pygmaea. Others maintain that it is a mere variety, pigmaea, of the more widespread Gowen cypress (Cupressus goveniana or Hesperocyparis goveniana). Under all circumstances, not much is pygmy-like about this tree, as it may be able to grow to a height of 43 m, with a diameter exceeding 2 m.



The trunk of an old Mendocino cypress, illuminated by the evening sun, Laguna Point, Mackerricher State Park, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Juniperus Juniper
This genus of c. 60 species is distributed in almost the entire Northern Hemisphere.


Juniperus communis Common juniper
The most widespread conifer in the world, found in the entire northern subarctic and temperate zones, southwards to North Africa, northern Iran, the Himalaya, Japan, and Arizona. In former days, this species was much utilized for various purposes, and it also played an important role in folklore, related on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



This old juniper in central Jutland, Denmark, has toppled, and the trunk is covered in mosses, but it is still full of life and growing vigorously. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Juniperus indica Black juniper
This high-altitude tree, growing between 2,100 and 5,200 m, is distributed from Pakistan eastwards to south-eastern Tibet and south-western China. Its foliage is burned as incense in Hindu and Buddhist shrines, and the fruit is utilized in traditional medicine for fever and headache.



This old and gnarled black juniper was photographed at an altitude of c. 3,600 m, Marsyangdi Valley, Annapurna, central Nepal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Juniperus osteosperma Utah juniper
A shrub or a small tree, growing to 6 m, rarely 9 m tall. It is native to western United States, from southern Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming southwards to eastern California, Arizona, and western New Mexico. It grows in dry areas, at elevations between 1,300 and 2,600 m.



An erect and a stunted Utah juniper, the latter with only a strip of 10 cm bark on the left side, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Juniperus pseudosabina Turkestan juniper
This shrub or small tree may reach a height of 10 m. It is native to mountains of Central Asia, found in south-central Siberia, Xinjiang, western Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, north-eastern Afghanistan, and northern Pakistan, growing at altitudes between 2,000 and 4000 m.



Lene Smith, standing at ancient Turkestan junipers, growing over rocks, Yrdyk Valley, Kyrgyzstan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Juniperus recurva Drooping juniper
This tree, named for its pendent branches, is native to southern Central Asia, from northern Pakistan eastwards to the Yunnan Province, south-western China. It grows at altitudes between 3,000 and 4,000 m.

The picture below shows a growth of old drooping junipers near the Pangboche Monastery, Khumbu, eastern Nepal. These magnificent trees are sacred to the local Tibetan Buddhists – a remnant of the animist Bon religion, in which trees, prominent rocks, etc. were worshipped. This belief dominated in Central Asia prior to the introduction of Buddhism. This subject is described at length on the page Religion: Animism.



(Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Libocedrus bidwillii New Zealand cedar
As its name implies, this species is restricted to New Zealand, where it grows in temperate rainforests at altitudes between 250 and 1,200 m. It is listed as near-threatened, and, apart from logging, the main threat is from browsing Australian brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), which may sometimes kill cedars. This introduced pest is presented on the page Nature: Invasive species.

New Zealand cedar was named in honour of British botanist and explorer John Carne Bidwill (1815-1853), who investigated plant life in New Zealand and Australia, discovering several species new to science. In 1851, while marking out a new road in Queensland, Bidwill got lost and was without food for eight days. He eventually succeeded in cutting a way through the scrub with a pocket hook, but never properly recovered from starvation, and died in March 1853, 38 years old. (Source: Serle, P. 1949. Bidwill, John Carne (1815-1853). Dictionary of Australian Biography. Angus & Robertson)



Old New Zealand cedars, Tongariro National Park, New Zealand. Presumably, the lump on the trunk in the lower picture has been caused by fungi. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Metasequoia glyptostroboides Dawn redwood
This genus was described as fossils in 1939. However, in 1942 Chinese botanist Toh Gan discovered an unusual conifer in Lichuan County, Hubei Province. The locals called this tree 水杉 (‘water fir’). In 1942, specimens of this tree were collected, and, as it turned out, it belonged to the same genus as the described fossil tree of 1939.

This discovery caused a sensation in botanical circles around the world, and the species was called ‘a living fossil’. It is a large tree, growing to 50 m tall, and it is among the few conifers shedding its foliage in winter. Today, it is a popular ornamental in cooler areas around the globe.



The bark of an old dawn redwood, eastern Jutland, Denmark. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Sequoia sempervirens Coast redwood
The tallest tree in the world, reaching a height of up to 115 m. It is also among the longest-living trees, some individuals being more than 1,800 years old. Before commercial logging began in the 1850s, this tree occurred in the wild along coastal California (excluding the southernmost parts), northwards to the south-western corner of Oregon. Today, it is restricted to rather scattered localities from Monterey County, south of San Francisco, northwards to extreme south-western Oregon.



Magnificent forest of coast redwood, Humboldt Redwood State Park, California. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Lars Skipper (upper picture) and I seem like midgets, compared to the size and grandeur of these fallen, partly decayed trunks of coast redwood, Humboldt Redwoods State Park. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Sequoiadendron giganteum Giant sequoia
In the wild, this relative of the coast redwood is found only in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Specimens of this tree are the heaviest living beings on the planet, the largest ones having an estimated weight of c. 2,100 tons.

The following quote of Scottish-American writer and environmentalist John Muir (1838-1914), from 1870, is cited in the book John Muir: His Life and Letters and Other Writings, edited by T. Gifford, Mountaineers Books, 1996: “Do behold the King in his glory, King Sequoia! Behold! Behold! seems all I can say. Some time ago I left all for Sequoia and have been and am at his feet, fasting and praying for light, for is he not the greatest light in the woods, in the world? Where are such columns of sunshine, tangible, accessible, terrestrialized?

Most people of that period did not share Muir’s enthusiasm. Despite the fact that their wood is fibrous and brittle, and of little use for construction, thousands of these magnificent trees were ruthlessly cut down, between the 1880s and 1924, even though their commercial value was marginal. The heavy trees would often shatter when they hit the ground, and it has been estimated that as little as 50% of the timber came to use. The wood was utilized mainly for shingles and fence posts, or even for matchsticks. – Imagine! From grand tree to matchstick!

Today, fortunately, felling of this species is strictly forbidden, and a few magnificent groves have been saved.

Other pictures, depicting these impressive trees, may be seen on the page Plants: Plants of Sierra Nevada.



Giant sequoias, Giant Sequoia National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Standing next to a giant sequoia, people appear like midgets. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Due to their thick, spongy bark, giant sequoias can withstand forest fires. However, there are limits to this resistance. In these pictures, two of the trees have succumbed. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



In the 1930s, this giant sequoia was dubbed ‘Auto Log’, because its trunk was levelled, making it possible for cars to drive on it. This picture shows the root net of this tree. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Likewise in the 1930s, a road was cut through the trunk of this giant sequoia in Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park. Today, fortunately, this type of vandalism is strictly prohibited. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Thuja plicata Western red cedar
A massive tree, sometimes growing to 70 m tall, with a trunk diameter up to 7 m. It is native to south-western Canada and north-western United States, but is widely cultivated elsewhere as an ornamental. Despite its name, it is not related to true cedars of the genus Cedrus.



This huge, multi-trunked western red cedar grows in a park on the island of Lolland, Denmark. Note the woman, peeping out behind one of the trunks. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




A family of 16 genera and about 700 species, mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees. The family name is derived from the Greek di (‘two’), pteron (‘wing’), and karpos (‘fruit’), alluding to the two-winged fruit (see picture below).


Dipterocarpus alatus
A large evergreen tree, to 40 m tall, occasionally even to 55 m, with a straight, cylindrical bole up to 1.5 m in diameter, often branchless for up to 20 m, and with an umbrella-like crown. It is distributed in Bangladesh, north-eastern India, Indochina, and the Philippines.

This species is one of the most important timber trees of Southeast Asia and is extensively logged commercially. It is threatened by habitat loss, listed as endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is also much exploited for its resin, which is used in traditional medicine, as wood lacquering, and to make boats waterproof. Mixed with beeswax, it is used in bandages for ulcerated wounds. The bark of young trees is taken against rheumatism and liver problems, and is also given to cattle to stimulate appetite.



Trunk of Dipterocarpus alatus, Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia. In the background stone lions, carved during the time of the Khmer Empire (see page Religion: Hinduism). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Fallen fruits of Dipterocarpus alatus, showing the two wings, Angkor Wat, Cambodia. These wings gave name to the genus and the entire family. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Fabaceae Pea family


Acacia confusa Philippine acacia, Taiwan acacia, Formosan koa
This medium-sized tree, growing to a height of c. 15 m, is native to northern Philippines, south-eastern China, and Taiwan, but has been planted extensively elsewhere, including Southeast Asia and many Pacific islands. In Hawaii, it is considered invasive. It is very common in the lowlands of Taiwan, growing up to an altitude of c. 2,000 m, where it is often protected, as it helps prevent landslides and soil erosion.

Philippine acacia has no true leaves, but phyllodes – winged leaf stalks, which function as leaves. They are scimitar-shaped, up to 11 cm long and 2 cm wide, with 3-5 parallel veins. The wood is very hard and was formerly used as beams in Taiwanese underground mines. Today, it is used to make floors, and to produce charcoal. The plant is also utilized in traditional folk medicine in Taiwan.

Other acacia species are presented on the page In praise of the colour yellow.



This gnarled Philippine acacia in Tunghai University Park, Taichung, Taiwan, has toppled, but is still growing vigorously. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Delonix regia Flamboyant tree, flame tree, royal poinciana
Named for its gorgeous flowers, this magnificent tree is native to Madagascar, but is cultivated as an ornamental in almost all warmer countries. Over time, the tree develops huge buttresses.



Flamboyant trees are commonly planted in Taiwan. These pictures are from Tunghai University Park, Taichung. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The huge flat pods of the flamboyant tree can grow to 60 cm long and 5 cm wide. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Tamarindus indica Tamarind tree
Despite its specific name, meaning ‘from India’, this tree is indigenous to Tropical Africa. It is widely cultivated elsewhere in hot countries for its fruits, whose pulp is used in cuisines around the world. It is also utilized in folk medicine, and to polish metal. In many Latin-speaking countries, a beverage, called tamarindo, is made from the pulp. The name tamarind is from Arabic تمر هندي (tamar hindi), meaning ‘Indian date’.



A cyclist is passing by the gnarled trunk of an ancient tamarind tree, Bagan, Myanmar. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Fagaceae Beech family


Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut
This large tree is native to the Mediterranean region, eastwards to the Alborz and Zagros mountains of Iran. It grows to 35 m tall and may live for 500 or 600 years. Cultivated specimens are reputedly a thousand years old.

Sweet chestnut is widely cultivated for its edible nuts and for its wood. Raw chestnuts are covered by a tough skin, which has an unpleasant, astringent taste. They are usually roasted, which makes it easier to remove the skin. Chestnut orchards are commonly found in Spain, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, and elsewhere.

During my stay in the Zagros Mountains in south-western Iran (see Travel episodes – Iran 1973: In the mountains of Luristan), I was told that fruits of sweet chestnut, which is common in these mountains, were an important food item, when the wheat crop failed.

In his book Flora Danica, from 1648, Danish physician and herbalist Simon Paulli (1603-1680) says: ”Galenus* praises the fruits of sweet chestnut above all other kinds of acorns, which are good to eat. We must point out that we do not agree with Johan Bodæo à Stapel, who, with beautiful and learned comments, has illustrated Theophrastum Eresium;** because he claims that sweet chestnuts are a kind of nuts. However, to us it seems more appropriate to regard them as a kind of acorns, but we do not want to go into detail here. (…)

Those, who hold their health in high esteem, should take care that they do not eat too many sweet chestnuts, because the above-mentioned Galenus also says this about them: (…) Sweet chestnuts, cooked or fried or dried over a fire, are always evil, but above all when they are eaten raw.”


*Claudius Galenus (130-210 A.D.), Greek-Roman physician and philosopher.


**A work by Greek scholar and botanist Theophrastos (c. 371 – c. 287 B.C.), called ‘The Father of Botany’.



Old chestnut tree with several trunks, near Milones, western Crete. Or are they five separate trees, which have sprouted in the same spot from seeds, buried by some animal? (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Fagus Beech
A genus of 10 to 13 species of trees, native to temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia, and North America.


Fagus sylvatica European beech
This species can grow to a very large tree, up to 50 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. This species is largely restricted to Europe, occurring from England and the Pyrenees eastwards to Poland and Ukraine, and from southern Sweden southwards to Italy and the Balkans, with a patchy occurrence in southern Norway, central Spain, and Turkey. In the Balkans, it hybridizes with the oriental beech (Fagus orientalis), which is found in Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran.

The pictures below show various types of old beeches, and other pictures may be seen on the pages Nature: Nature’s patterns, and Autumn.



Huge, moss-covered beech, central Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Old beeches with several trunks, Jutland, Denmark. They were probably pruned when they were young. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



A hollow, but still living beech, Lake Slåen, central Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Fog envelops an old, mis-shaped beech in Triglavski National Park, Slovenia. The stump to the right resembles some long-horned animal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



An old beech, Jægerspris, Zealand, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Ancient beeches have overgrown a bronze age dolmen, Lindeskov, eastern Funen, Denmark. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Ancient, dying beeches, growing near St. Martin, in the Spanish Pyrenees. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



An aberrant form of beech from Jutland, Denmark, its branches bending down and growing along the ground. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Quercus Oak


Quercus agrifolia Coast live oak
This medium-sized tree, sometimes growing to 25 m tall, is native to the lowlands of California, from Mendocino County southwards to northern Baja California. Some specimens may be more than a thousand years old.



Old coast live oaks, Los Osos Oaks State Reserve, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Quercus floribunda Indian holly oak
This species, previously known as Q. dilatata, and in Hindi named moru, is distributed from Afghanistan eastwards to Nepal, growing in forests at altitudes between 1,600 and 2,900 m.

The large Indian holly oak below, encountered in the Asi Ganga Valley, Uttarakhand, northern India, is sacred to the local people. Stones have been gathered, forming a semi-circle around the tree, and rhododendron flowers have been placed as an offering on one of the stones. Also, coins are hammered into its bark as an offering, supposedly bringing good luck. These practices are a remnant of the animist Bon religion, in which trees, prominent rocks, etc. were worshipped. This belief dominated in the Himalaya prior to the introduction of Hinduism. This subject is discussed on the page Religion: Animism.



(Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Quercus petraea Sessile oak
This species is mainly European, found from southern Scandinavia and the British Isles southwards to Portugal, and eastwards to Poland and the Balkans, with isolated populations in Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. It can be told from the common oak (below) by its darker, shiny, less indented leaves. Pictures, depicting leaves of both species, may be seen on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



In this picture, Lars Skipper is admiring an ancient sessile oak, growing on the shore of Lake Almind, Silkeborg, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Quercus pubescens Downy oak
Growing to about 20 m tall, this deciduous tree may become several hundred years old, with stout trunks up to 2 m across. It is native to southern Europe, found from Belgium, France, and southern Germany eastwards to Ukraine and the Caucasus, southwards to Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey.



An ancient downy oak, a single branch still alive, Parco delle Madonie, Sicily. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Quercus robur Common oak, English oak
This species is described in depth on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



Formerly, the forest at Halltorps Hage, Öland, Sweden, was home to about a thousand ancient common oaks, but, unfortunately, the major part of these were felled in the 1930s, and out of the remaining 30 or so, most are not doing too well. These pictures show a dead oak, its trunk covered in feeding tunnels of larvae of the great capricorn beetle (Cerambyx cerdo). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This old common oak grows on the island of Almö, Blekinge, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Bolleregen (‘The Boller Oak’), an ancient common oak, about 800 years old, growing at the Boller Estate, near Horsens, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



An old oak, overgrown by ivy (Hedera helix), Hestehaveskoven, eastern Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



In Europe, many hollow trees were worshipped far into the Middle Ages. Two such trees, both ancient common oaks, growing north of Copenhagen, Denmark, are shown below. Even today, sacred trees are found in many cultures around the world – a remnant of animism, in which trees, stones, etc. were objects of worship and offerings. Some animistic rituals are described on the page Religion: Animism.



With a circumference of 10.3 m, the Skovfogedegen (‘Forest Ranger’s Oak’) is one of the largest trees in Denmark. It was named after forest ranger Johan Georg Weissler, who, in the early 1800s, arranged his own private oratory inside its hollow trunk. The lower picture was taken from inside the hollow tree. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Ulvedalsegen (‘Wolf Valley Oak’), also called ‘The Theatre Oak’, is slightly larger than the Forest Ranger’s Oak, with a circumference of 10.4 m. The name ‘Theatre Oak’ stems from an old tradition of performing plays in front of this old tree. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Members of this family were previously included in the family Simaroubaceae, but 13 species in 3 genera, Irvingia, Allantospermum, and Klainedoxa, have now been transferred to a separate family.

The family is named for Scottish naval surgeon Edward George Irving (1816-1855), who was an avid collector of plants.


Irvingia malayana
A tropical evergreen tree, growing to 50 m tall, with greyish to whitish bark and a trunk diameter of up to 50 cm. It is native to Indochina and the western half of the Indonesian archipelago.

The ellipsoid fruit, measuring up to 60 mm long, is known as wild almond or barking deer’s mango. It is edible and sweet, and the large seeds, about the size of an almond, are also edible roasted. The wood is used in construction.



Large specimen of Irvingia malayana, Ta Prohm, Angkor, Cambodia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Lauraceae Laurel family


Cinnamomum camphora Camphor tree
Native to southern Japan, South Korea, south-eastern China, Taiwan, and Vietnam, this tree is widely cultivated elsewhere for production of camphor, which is used as a component of incense, as a spice, as medicine, and as an insect repellent. The largest known camphor tree, Kamō no Ōkusu (‘Great camphor of Kamō), in Japan, has a circumference of 24.2 m.



Huge flowering camphor tree, growing in Tunghai University Park, Taichung, Taiwan. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Ocotea foetens
This tree, sometimes growing to 40 m tall, is endemic to the Canary Islands and Madeira, growing in laurel forests, usually at elevations between 400 and 1400 m. The wood is rich in essential oils, which give an unpleasant odour when newly cut, hence the specific name, which means ‘stinking’ in Latin.

The fruit is a fleshy berry, to 3 cm long, which resembles an acorn. It is a popular food item for the endemic laurel pigeons of these islands.

In older days, this tree was sacred to the Bimbaches, the original inhabitants of the island of El Hierro.



Ancient Ocotea foetens, Los Tilos de Moya laurel forest, Gran Canaria. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Lythraceae Loosestrife family


Lagerstroemia Crepe myrtle
A genus with about 50 species of trees and shrubs, native to the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, northern Australia, and some islands in the Pacific Ocean. Due to their beautiful flowers, many species are cultivated in numerous warmer areas.

This genus was named by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) in honour of a Swedish merchant, Magnus von Lagerström (1696-1759), who was director of the Swedish East India Company. Lagerström was a keen naturalist, and, despite never visiting Asia, he was able to procure many specimens from India and China, which he presented to Linnaeus. (Source: E. Bretschneider 1898. History of European Botanical Discoveries in China)


Lagerstroemia calyculata
This medium-sized tree, growing up to 35 m tall, trunk to 80 cm in diameter, often wavy, with greyish bark that tends to flake. It is native to deciduous forests in Indochina, where it is widely utilized for its timber.

The specific name is Latin, meaning ‘provided with an epicalyx’ (bracts immediately beneath the calyx).



Trunk of a huge Lagerstroemia calyculata, Ta Prohm, Angkor, Cambodia. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Lagerstroemia subcostata Chinese crepe-myrtle
This small tree, to 14 m tall, has a characteristic smooth and pale bark, which makes you think that the tree is dead. Native to Japan, Taiwan, China, and the Philippines, this species grows in forests and along streams, from low to medium elevations.



An old Chinese crepe-myrtle, Aowanda National Forest, Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Malvaceae Mallow family


Adansonia digitata Common baobab
This majestic tree often dominates large areas of savanna in sub-Saharan Africa. It is the most widespread among the nine species in this genus, of which six are native to Madagascar, two to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one to Australia.

Folk names of this species include dead-rat tree (from the sausage-like fruit, hanging in a long stalk – the rat’s tail), monkey-bread tree (the fruit is edible), and upside-down tree (the sparse branches resemble roots). The name baobab is derived from the Arabic būħibāb, meaning ‘the father of many seeds’. The generic name refers to French botanist and explorer Michel Adanson (1727-1806), who was the first European to observe the species during an expedition to Senegal.



Rainbow behind giant baobabs, Tarangire National Park, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This picture, also from Tarangire National Park, shows a hollow baobab, partly destroyed by elephants (Loxodonta africana), which have eaten much of the bark, peeling it off with their tusks. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Heritiera javanica
This tree, a member of the subfamily Sterculioideae, is up to 45 m tall, trunk to 1.3 m across, with thin buttresses. It is a lowland species, found up to an elevation of about 600 m, in Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The wood is utilized as timber.



Heritiera javanica, Phnom Kbal Spean, Angkor, Cambodia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Tilia x europaea Common linden, common lime
This hybrid between small-leaved linden (T. cordata) and large-leaved linden (T. platyphyllos) has become naturalized here and there in Europe, where both parent species are present. It is very widely cultivated, being the commonest linden in urban areas, despite the fact that it is host to vast populations of aphids, which produce huge amounts of honeydew, leaving a sticky layer on parked cars, and everything else, beneath the trees. It is a very popular tree among bee-keepers, as its flowers produce an esteemed type of honey.

Common linden can grow very old and very large, up to 50 m high. One long-lived specimen was the ’Malmvik lime’, planted as a sapling near the Malmvik Manor, Stockholm, Sweden, in 1618. This tree lived for 381 years, until its remains fell during a storm in 1999. (Source: R. Bengtsson, 2004. The Malmvik Lime: An Historical and Biological Analysis of the Oldest Documented Planting of Common Lime (Tilia x europaea L.) in Sweden. The Garden History Society. 32 (2):188-196)

The largest common linden in Britain is at Aysgarth, Yorkshire, which, in 2009, was 26 m tall, with a diameter of 2,95 m. (Source: O. Johnson, 2011. Champion Trees of Britain & Ireland. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London)



Old and gnarled common linden trees, Jægerspris, Zealand, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Bronze Age burial mound at Gisselfeldt, Zealand, Denmark, overgrown by large common linden trees. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)






Melia azedarach Persian lilac
This tree, also known as Chinaberry, is probably native to Iran and the Indian Subcontinent, but due to its beautiful flowers and fruits it has been widely planted elsewhere. It readily spreads and has become an invasive in various places, including North America, East Africa, some Pacific Islands, New Zealand, and Australia.

Other pictures, depicting this species, are shown on the page Nature: Invasive species, and the medical usage of this plant is dealt with on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



The bark on old Persian lilac trees often forms cross-like patterns, like on this specimen in Taitung Ecological Park, Taiwan. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Moraceae Fig family


Ficus Fig
Figs are a genus of about 850 species of trees, vines, or epiphytes, native throughout the tropics and subtropics, with a few species extending into warmer parts of the northern temperate zone.



Huge fig tree of an unidentified species, blurred by morning fog, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Another unidentified species, serving as part of a street restaurant in Hanoi, Vietnam. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Ficus benghalensis Banyan, Bengal fig
This tree has long aerial roots, hanging down from the branches, which often take root, over time creating a ’forest’ of trunks, all of which are in fact a single individual. This species is presented in depth on the page Plants: Pipal and banyan – two sacred fig trees.



This 250-year-old banyan in Kolkata Botanical Garden, West Bengal, India, has grown to enormous dimensions, creating an entire patch of ‘forest’, which is in reality only a single tree. The central trunk (the mother tree) was removed in 1925 because of rot. When this picture was taken in 1994, there were c. 1,825 stilt roots, with a total circumference of c. 420 m and a height of c. 25 m. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



In this picture, Ib Krag Petersen is standing beneath another large banyan, encountered in Ranthambhor National Park, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Ficus benjamina Weeping fig
The weeping fig is native to the Indian Subcontinent, eastwards to southern China and Taiwan, and thence southwards through Southeast Asia and Indonesia to northern Australia, and eastwards to some of the Pacific islands. When small, it is a very popular house plant, but in the wild it grows to enormous dimensions, with countless aerial roots.



A row of old weeping figs, Tunghai University Park, Taichung, Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This gigantic weeping fig grows near the Wenara Wana Temple (popularly called ‘Monkey Forest’), near Ubud, Bali, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Lars Skipper, standing beneath another huge weeping fig with numerous aerial roots, called the ‘Thousand-root banyan’. This tree grows in Jhiben National Forest, eastern Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Ficus religiosa Pipal, sacred fig
This species belongs to a group of fig trees, called strangler figs. Most seeds of these trees begin their life as an epiphyte in a tree, the seed often sprouting in a pile of bird dung, delivered by the bird which ate the fig fruit. Over the years, aerial roots of the young strangler fig grow down to the ground, where they take root, while other roots wrap themselves around the host tree, over time completely enveloping the tree, which is eventually strangled to death. As the trunk of the host tree decays, it leaves the fig tree as a hollow cylinder of aerial roots.

Pipal not only grows on trees, it is also very often sprouting in cracks on buildings. Its leaves are broad and heart-shaped, ending in a long, tapering point. This tree is sacred to Buddhists and Hindus, hence its specific name, as well as one of its English names. It is presented in detail on the page Plants: Pipal and banyan – two sacred fig trees.



An ancient pipal tree, Bandipur, central Nepal. It has produced a huge branch, as thick as a medium-sized tree. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This pipal grows around a small Hindu shrine in Kathmandu, Nepal, causing it to crack. Over the years, it will destroy the building completely. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Ficus superba Large-leaved fig
This species is another strangler fig, also readily growing on buildings. However, it is also able to thrive as a normal tree. It is distributed in China, Taiwan, Japan, and parts of Southeast Asia, southwards to Indonesia.



Aerial roots of this giant large-leaved fig have enveloped the remains of the former warehouse of Tait & Co., Anping, Taiwan. Today, the building is called Anping Tree House. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Ancient large-leaved fig, growing in the park surrounding the Daoist ‘Temple of the Five Concubines’, from 1683, Tainan, Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Ficus tinctoria Dye fig, humped fig
The dye fig is yet another strangler fig, which has more or less the same distribution as the weeping fig (above). The specific name is Latin, meaning ‘to dye’, alluding to the traditional usage of its fruits to produce a dye.



The gnarled base of the trunk of a dye fig of the subspecies gibbosa, strangling a silk-cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), photographed among the Khmer ruins at Angkor Wat, Cambodia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Another specimen of subspecies gibbosa has strangled a tree, which is growing on a ruin, Ta Prohm, Angkor Wat. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Dye figs also readily grow on buildings, as this huge specimen, embracing a ruin at Ta Prohm. Several pictures from these impressive ruins are found on the page Decay. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



In Hinduism, apsaras are supernatural female beings, superb in the art of dancing. They are often depicted dancing to music, delivered by Gandharvas, court musicians of the rain god Indra. They entertain and sometimes seduce gods and men. Over time, this Khmer sculpture at Ta Prohm, Angkor Wat, Cambodia, which may depict an apsara, has been almost completely enveloped by a huge dye fig. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Myrtaceae Myrtle family


Metrosideros excelsa Pohutukawa
A common folk name of this tree is New Zealand Christmas tree, in allusion to its brilliant crimson flower display around Christmas time. It is an evergreen tree, one among 12 species in the genus Metrosideros, which are all endemic to New Zealand. The specific name is derived from the Latin excelsus (‘sublime’), presumably referring to the gorgeous flower display. Pohutukawa is a Maori word, referring to an unidentified coastal shrub.

This species grows to 25 m tall, with numerous spreading trunks. Its natural range is coastal regions of the North Island. Once upon a time, it formed a continuous coastal fringe between the present-day towns of New Plymouth and Gisborne, but by the 1990s, farming and introduced pests had reduced these magnificent forests by over 90%. The durable wood was often used in shipbuilding, since the naturally curvy shapes made strong knees (an angular piece of timber, utilized to reinforce the junction of two surfaces of different planes). (Main source:, which has a list of other sources.)



Ancient pohutukawa trees on the Karikari Peninsula, New Zealand. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Nothofagaceae Southern beeches
Formerly, southern beeches were regarded as rather close relatives of the beeches (Fagus, see Fagaceae above), but recent genetic research has shown that they differ sufficiently from beeches to form a separate family. These trees or shrubs, constituting about 43 species, are native to the Southern Hemisphere, in Chile, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. Several species are dominant in temperate forests.


Nothofagus dombeyi Coigüe
Coigüe (pronounced coi-hoo-e) is a large tree, growing to 45 m tall and with a diameter up to 2 m. It often forms large tracts of forest in the Andes of Chile and Argentina, at altitudes between 700 and 1,200 m. The specific name was given in honour of French botanist Joseph Dombey (1742-1794), who studied the flora of Chile 1782-1785.

This species is presented in detail on the page Travel episodes – Chile 2011: The white forest.



This old coigüe in Parque Nacional Conguillio, Chile, has been attacked by fungi. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Nothofagus fusca Red southern beech
This large tree, growing to 35 m tall, is endemic to New Zealand, where it occurs on both the large islands, growing in inland valleys and lower hills. The leaves are quite distinct, with large teeth along the margin.



Ancient red southern beeches, covered by mosses, lichens, and other epiphytes, Rotokura Ecological Reserve, New Zealand. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Oleaceae Olive family


Fraxinus excelsior Common ash
A common tree, native to almost the entire Europe, eastwards to the Caucasus and the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. It has also become naturalized a few places in New Zealand, the United States, and Canada.

In later years, populations of ash have been much reduced by ash dieback, a disease caused by a fungus, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, previously called Chalara fraxinea. Most trees that contract this disease die after a few years. However, research has shown that some trees have resistance to it.



Old ash trees, Hestehaveskoven, eastern Jutland, Denmark. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This broken ash has grown several new ‘trunks’, eastern Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Trunk of an old ash with lichens and moss, eastern Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Olea europaea Olive tree
Olive trees can live for more than 2000 years. Some specimens in the Gethsemane Garden, beneath the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, were young trees, when Jesus wandered in this area. This species is described in detail on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



Three ancient olive trees, Crete. The black nets are used during harvest of the olives, when people beat the branches with sticks to loosen the fruits. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Tyrkiet 2018a
This split and pruned olive tree was once planted on a square in the town of Mordogan, Karaburun Peninsula, near Izmir, Turkey. Or is it in reality four trees, which were once upon a time interwoven? (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinaceae Pine family


Abies Fir
This genus, comprising about 50 species, is mainly distributed in montane areas in the major part of Eurasia, in North Africa, and in much of North and Central America.


Abies kawakamii Taiwan fir, Kawakami fir
This species is restricted to the highest mountain tops of Taiwan, between 2,400 and 3,800 m altitude. It is declining, as its sub-populations have become fragmented, fire being the main threat.



These Taiwan firs, photographed at c. 3,000 m altitude on Hohuan Shan, are stunted from fierce winds and frost. The one to the right has already succumbed. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Abies spectabilis Himalayan silver fir
This species is very common in the Himalaya, found from Afghanistan eastwards to Myanmar. It may grow to a tree of very large proportions, to 50 m tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m across. It is widely used locally, the wood for construction, carpentry, furniture, paper-making, and firewood, the foliage medicinally for asthma, bronchitis, colds, and rheumatism, and also burned as incense.



This ancient Himalayan silver fir in the Khumbu area, eastern Nepal, has a large hole in the trunk, but is still alive. The tree to the left is an old drooping juniper (Juniperus recurva). A sacred grove of this species is shown elsewhere on this page (Cupressaceae). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Cedrus deodara Himalayan cedar, deodar
This tree, which is distributed from Afghanistan eastwards to western Nepal, can grow to enormous dimensions, up to 80 m tall, its huge bole having a circumference of up to 12 m. The generic name is derived from the Greek kedros, which stems from an ancient Indo-European word, meaning incense. Formerly, needles and wood were used as incense. Today, traditional medicine is made from an essential oil in the wood. Cedar is described in detail on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



Himalayan cedars, growing near the Hadimba Temple, a Hindu temple in Manali, Himachal Pradesh, northern India. – This shrine is described in depth on the page Religion: Hinduism. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



At some point during its lifetime, this old deodar, which was observed in the Tirthan Valley, Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh, was probably on the verge of sliding into the abyss. However, it managed to cling to the precipice, several of its trunks becoming partly horizontal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Cedrus libani Lebanon cedar
According to ancient scriptures, the Lebanon cedar once covered huge areas in countries around the eastern Mediterranean, in southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Cyprus. Today, only a tiny fraction of the former old-growth cedar forests remains. However, widespread reforestation of the species is taking place in Lebanon and Turkey. In the latter country, over 50 million young cedars are planted annually, covering an area of c. 300 km2.

Lebanon cedar is mentioned several times in the Old Testament:

Moses told Hebrew priests to use the bark of this tree to cure leprosy. (Leviticus 14:1-4)

Hebrew prophet Isaiah used the Lebanon cedar as a metaphor for the haughty pride of humans. (Isaiah 2:13)

King Solomon ordered the Temple of Jerusalem to be built of cedar timber. (Source:

And, finally, the Song of Solomon, 5:15, “His legs are like marble pillars, set in sockets of finest gold. His posture is stately, like the noble cedars of Mount Lebanon.”



In this picture, Judy Chiang has found shelter from the intense heat beneath an ancient Lebanon cedar, near Ermenek, Toros Dağlari (Taurus Mountains), southern Turkey. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus Pine
A huge genus of conifers, comprising around 125 species, distributed in arctic, temperate and subtropical areas of almost the entire Northern Hemisphere. If left in peace, many species are able to grow very old and gnarled. Below is a collection of photos of remarkable old pine trees that I have encountered at various places around the world.


Pinus albicaulis Whitebark pine
Under favourable conditions, this tree may grow to almost 30 m tall, but at exposed locations it often becomes dwarfed and twisted. It is native to montane areas, from British Columbia southwards through Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, and with patchy occurrences in Oregon, Nevada, and California.



This old, gnarled whitebark pine stands on the crater rim in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. Yellow lichens are growing on its exposed roots. Crater Lake evolved in the caldera of a collapsed ancient volcano, called Mount Mazama. Wizard Island is seen in the background. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus brutia Turkish pine, Calabrian pine
This pine is native to the eastern Mediterranean, from Greece eastwards to the Caucasus, and from Bulgaria and the Turkish Black Sea coast southwards to Israel, Jordan, and northern Iraq. The name Calabrian pine stems from a naturalized population in Calabria, the southernmost part of the Italian Peninsula. When this pine was first described, the type specimen was from this region.



These old, gnarled Turkish pines were photographed at the Tuzlabeli Pass (1440 m), south-western Turkey. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Old, twisted Turkish pine, encountered in a gorge near Sougia, southern Crete. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus canariensis Canary Islands pine
This large tree is endemic to the Canary Islands, from Gran Canaria westwards. It is the tallest tree in the islands, growing to 40 m tall, occasionally to 60 m, with a trunk diameter of 1.2 m, sometimes even to 2.6 m. It grows in dry as well as wet areas, even surviving in areas with rainfall less than 200 mm per year. It was chosen as the ‘national’ plant of La Palma.



There are not many large and old Canary Islands pines left in the Canary Islands. This one is growing on the plateau near Presa de las Niñas, Gran Canaria. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Large specimen of Canary Islands pine, Villaflor, Tenerife. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus echinata Shortleaf pine
As its name implies, the needles of this species are rather short, to 11 cm long. The bark cracks into plates of irregular form. It is native to the eastern United States, from Pennsylvania and southern New York State southwards to northern Florida, and thence westwards to eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas.



Bark of shortleaf pine, Jamestown, Virginia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus longaeva Great Basin bristlecone pine
One day, towards the end of April 1992, I was hiking up a slope in Inyo National Forest, White Mountains, eastern California. In front of me were the most remarkable trees I have ever seen. At a distance, they appeared completely dead, with twisted, naked branches, stretching from a yellowish trunk towards the blue sky. But then – at closer quarters I noticed a narrow strip of bark on the side of the trunk, which pointed away from the direction of the prevailing wind. This strip of bark was leading up to one or two branches, densely covered in green needles, and from the tip of these branches, small cones were hanging down, their scales equipped with bristle-like appendages.

These peculiar trees were Great Basin bristlecone pines, a species restricted to high-altitude areas in eastern California, Nevada, and Utah. Apart from certain clones, including a creosote (Larrea tridentata) in the Mohave Desert, whose age is estimated at c. 9,400 years, this pine is the oldest living organism on Earth, a few of them being around 5,000 years old.

Other photos, depicting these remarkable trees, may be seen on the page Plants: Plants of Sierra Nevada.



Ancient Great Basin bristlecone pines, Inyo National Forest, White Mountains. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Ancient, gnarled, and stunted Great Basin bristlecone pine, Horse trail, Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



These Great Basin bristlecone pines have succumbed, Bristlecone Loop Trail, Bryce Canyon National Park. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus mugo Mountain pine
This species is sometimes called creeping pine due to its often low and creeping habit at higher altitudes. It is native to southern Europe, from the Pyrenees across the Alps to the Carpathians, and southwards to the Apennines in Italy, and to higher mountains of the Balkans. Along the Danish west coast, it has been widely planted to stabilize sand dunes, and has become widely naturalized there.



Old mountain pine, Rosanintal, Austria. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus muricata Bishop pine
This coastal species has a very restricted distribution, found only on a few localities on the Californian coast, on some of the Channel Islands, and two places in Baja California, Mexico. The name bishop pine arose, when this tree was first identified near the Mission of San Luis Obispo, California.



This old bishop pine was observed in Jughandle State Park, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus nigra Black pine, Austrian pine
This majestic tree, growing to 55 m tall, is widely distributed around the Mediterranean, from Spain eastwards to Turkey and Crimea, and also in the High Atlas of Morocco. It is commonly cultivated elsewhere.



Bark of an old black pine, Nature Reserve Vorsø, Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus radiata Monterey pine
The natural range of this pine is limited to a few locations in Santa Cruz and San Luis Obispo Counties, central California, and two islands, Guadalupe and Cedros, off the west coast of northern Baja California, Mexico. In its natural range, it is seriously threatened by an introduced species of fungus, the pitch canker (Fusarium circinatum).

Elsewhere in California, this tree has been planted extensively, and also in Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Kenya, South Africa, and on the island of Tristan da Cunha.



Ancient, twisted Monterey pine, Jug Handle State Reserve, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus roxburghii Chir pine, long-leaved pine
This tree occurs in montane areas from Afghanistan across the Himalaya to south-eastern Tibet. It is utilized for a number of purposes. The wood is used as timber and to make furniture and charcoal. It also yields turpentine. The resin is used in a number of products, including paper, soap, cosmetics, paint, varnish, rubber, polish, and bangles. Tannin from the bark is used in dyeing. The seeds are roasted and eaten, and in Nepal, honey dew from aphids living on the needles is eaten as candy.

Parts of this tree are ingredients in folk medicine, utilized for numerous ailments, described on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



Tapping resin from the trunk of an old chir pine, Sairopa, Himachal Pradesh, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pinus sylvestris Scots pine
This species has an enormous distribution, found from Spain and Scotland eastwards across Europe and Siberia to north-eastern China, and southwards to Turkey, the Caucasus, and Mongolia. In Scandinavia, it is found northwards to the Porsanger Fjord, Norway, making it the northernmost pine species in the world. In 2014, the Scots pine was elected the national tree of Scotland.



This ancient Scots pine has finally succumbed to old age, Byrums Sandfelt, Öland, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



These c. 35-metre-high Scots pines, growing in Böda Kronoskog, Öland, Sweden, are called Mastträd (‘The Mast Trees’) – a suitable name for these majestic trees. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir
This species is native to western North America, with two varieties, one coastal, growing from British Columbia southwards to central California, and one montane, found in the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia southwards to Mexico. Today, it is cultivated almost worldwide for its excellent timber.

The specific name was given in honour of Scottish naturalist Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), who participated, as surgeon and botanist, in an expedition around the world on board HMS Discovery, under the leadership of Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798).

The English name honours Scottish gardener and botanist David Douglas (1799-1834), who explored the North American flora during three expeditions. He introduced Douglas-fir and other conifers, especially pine species, as well as a number of bushes and herbs, into British cultivation. In a letter to Sir William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865), director of the Botanical Gardens of Glasgow University, he wrote, “You will begin to think I manufacture pines at my pleasure.”

Douglas died under mysterious circumstances while climbing Mauna Kea in Hawaii in 1834. Apparently, he fell into a pit trap and was possibly crushed by a bull that fell into the same trap. He was last seen at the hut of Englishman Edward ‘Ned’ Gurney, a bullock hunter and escaped convict. Gurney was suspected in Douglas’s death, as Douglas was said to have been carrying more money than Gurney subsequently delivered with the body. (Source: Nisbet, J. 2009. The Collector: David Douglas and the Natural History of the Northwest. Sasquatch Books)

A picture, depicting an unripe cone of Douglas-fir, may be seen on the page Nature: Nature’s patterns.



This 750-year-old Douglas-fir has taken root in a narrow canyon on the Navaho Loop Trail, Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, United States. This area of fantastic rock formations is described on the page Nature: Rocks and boulders. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This trunk of an old Douglas-fir has been overgrown by a fungus named green elfcup (Chlorociboria aeruginascens), Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Tsuga chinensis var. formosana Taiwan hemlock
Taiwan hemlock is a variety of Chinese hemlock, which is quite common in mixed broad-leaved forests in montane areas of Taiwan, at altitudes between 1,700 and 3,500 m. Some authorities question the validity of this variety, claiming that it is identical with the type. The Chinese hemlock, in the wider sense, is found from Tibet eastwards to China and Taiwan, southwards to northern Vietnam.



White trunks of dead Taiwan hemlocks contrast sharply with the lush green forest on the slopes of Yu Shan, at 3952 m the highest mountain in Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Tsuga dumosa Himalayan hemlock
Growing to 40 m tall, this tree is very common in the Himalaya, found at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,600 m, from Uttarakhand eastwards to northern Myanmar, south-eastern Tibet, and south-western China, with an isolated population in northern Vietnam. The timber is used for construction, furniture, and foot-bridges, and the needles are burned as incense in Hindu and Buddhist shrines.



After a forest fire, two tall stumps are all that remains of a huge Himalayan hemlock, near Tharepati, Langtang National Park, Nepal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Platanaceae Plane tree family
Eight of the ten species of the magnificent plane trees, genus Platanus, are indigenous to North America, one is found in Laos and Vietnam, whereas the tenth species, the oriental plane tree (P. orientalis), is distributed from the Balkans and Turkey southwards to Jordan, but may be a native as far west as Italy, and as far east as Kashmir in northern India. As it is widely cultivated, it is often difficult to decide, whether a population is indigenous or not.

The generic name is from the Greek platanos, which was the ancient name of maple trees (Acer). It refers to the maple-like leaves of the oriental plane tree. Some North American species are called sycamores, likewise referring to the leaves, which resemble those of the European sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus).


Platanus x acerifolia London plane tree
This tree, which is widely planted in North European cities, is a hybrid between the oriental plane tree and the North American occidental plane tree (P. occidentalis). Some authorities claim that this hybrid arose in Spain in the 1600s, where the two mother species were planted side by side. Others point to the Royal Tradescant Arboretum, southern London, where John Tradescant the Younger (1608-1662) was a gardener. P. occidentalis as well as P. orientalis are mentioned from this arboretum, so the hybrid possibly arose here, as indicated by the name London plane.



This beautiful row of London plane trees grows near Gjorslev Estate, Zealand, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



On the Gråbrødre Square in central Copenhagen, a London plane tree was planted in 1907. Today, it is a large, beautiful tree with an enormous crown. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Platanus orientalis Oriental plane tree



Ancient oriental plane trees, Pahalgam, Kashmir, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



An old, partly burned oriental plane tree, growing on the grounds of the Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı), Istanbul, Turkey. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This oriental plane tree, growing near the village of Pahalgam, Kashmir, India, displays brilliant autumn foliage. The slender trees with yellow foliage are poplars (Populus). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Tyrkiet 2018
Metro train, passing a huge oriental plane tree in Istanbul, Turkey. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Ancient and hollow oriental plane tree, western Crete. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Plane fruits are very characteristic, with numerous nutlets, forming balls, hanging on long stalks, 2 to 4 together. The nutlets are surrounded by stiff hairs, which assist in spreading the seeds with the wind. This picture from Manisa, western Turkey, shows fruits of oriental plane tree. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Platanus racemosa Californian sycamore



This Californian sycamore in Cleveland National Forest, California, is infested with many oak mistletoes (Phoradendron villosum). – The oak mistletoe and many other parasitic plants are described on the page Plants: Parasitic plants. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Platanus wrightii Arizona sycamore



An old Arizona sycamore, photographed in the Catalina Mountains, Arizona. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Rhamnaceae Buckthorn family


Ziziphus mauritiana Indian jujube
This smallish tree or large shrub is probably native to India and Southeast Asia, but has been widely cultivated for more than 4,000 years. The fruit is tasty, eaten dried, candied, pickled, and as so-called ber butter, and also taken as a beverage. It is very rich in vitamin C, second only to guava (Psidium guajava). Ripe fruits are dried in the sun, ground, and kept for out-of-season. In Ethiopia, the fruits are used as fish poison. The flowers yield honey.

The wood is hard and yields excellent timber, used as well lining, and for boats, tools, and legs for bedsteads. It is also used as firewood and makes good charcoal. In certain African countries, the thorny shrubs are made into corral fences to protect livestock. The seed oil can be utilized as excellent biodiesel. Indian jujube is also widely used in folk medicine, described on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.

This species has become naturalized in numerous countries, from southern Africa across the Middle East to China, and also in Australia and the Pacific Islands. It is regarded as an invasive in northern Australia, where it has become a serious threat to the environment.


The picture below is from the sacred temple of the Sikhs, Hari Mandir, often called ‘The Golden Temple’, in Amritsar, Punjab, north-western India. A 475-year-old jujube tree, which grows on the temple premises, supposedly possesses healing powers, and women, who wish to give birth to a son, attach bits of cloth to its bark as an offering. Hari Mandir is presented in depth on the page Travel episodes – India 1997: Golden Temple of the Sikhs.



(Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Rosaceae Rose family


Cotoneaster frigidus
Most Cotoneaster species are dwarf shrubs or bushes less than 2 m tall, but this deciduous species may occasionally grow to 10 m tall. The leaves are short-stalked, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, to 12 cm long and 4.5 cm broad, initially woolly-hairy beneath, later hairless, narrowed to the base, tip pointed. Inflorescences are dense clusters with up to 40 flowers, each to 7 mm across. The fruit is scarlet, ellipsoid, to 5 mm long.

It is found in the Himalaya, from Uttarakhand eastwards to Bhutan and south-eastern Tibet, growing at elevations between 2,200 and 3,400 m.

In Nepal, the fruit is eaten to treat blood deficiency.

The specific name is Latin, meaning ‘growing in cold places’.



When left in peace, Cotoneaster frigidus may grow tall and very thick, like these two trees near Thangshyap, Langtang Valley, central Nepal. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Prunus avium Wild cherry
The native area of this tree was probably from France across Europe to Caucasus, but at an early stage it was cultivated in numerous countries around the world, in Europe as far north as Denmark and southern Sweden. As its name implies, it often becomes naturalized.

Like other names, including the German Kirsch and the Italian cerasa, the English name cherry stems from the Latin cerasus, which was adopted from the Greek kerasos, the ancient Greek name of the cherry tree. Cerasus was also the ancient Roman name of the modern town Giresun, situated on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, from where cherries during the Roman Era were exported to Rome. The specific name, derived from the Latin avis (‘bird’), relates to the fact that various bird species love cherries.

The role of wild cherry in folklore and traditional medicine is described on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry.



Old wild cherry with several trunks, Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Prunus cerasifera Cherry plum, myrobalan plum
This close relative of the cherry is a small tree, sometimes reaching a height of 12 m. It is a native of south-eastern Europe and western Asia. However, due to its edible fruits, which taste somewhat like plums, it was introduced to most parts of Europe and North America at an early stage, and has become widely naturalized there.

This species often produces an abundance of fruits. If they are not picked by people, they remain on the tree, until they are over-ripe and fall to the ground. Wild birds are not at all able to eat all these berries, which often lie almost in layers on the ground beneath the tree. Rotting cherry plums are much praised by butterflies and wasps. Pictures, depicting the fruits, are presented on the page Autumn.



Where cherry plum trees are left in peace, they can grow trunks of an impressive size, like this ancient one in central Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Sorbus intermedia Swedish whitebeam
This smallish tree, growing to about 15 m tall, is a natural hybrid with genes from rowan (S. aucuparia), wild service tree (S. torminalis), and possibly common whitebeam (S. aria). It is most common in southern Sweden (hence its common name), and also occurs on scattered locations in Estonia, Latvia, the Danish island of Bornholm, south-western Finland, and northern Poland. It is often planted elsewhere, especially along roads.



This old Swedish whitebeam was probably pruned by a deer, or otherwise damaged when young, since it has produced so many branches at an early stage. – Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Salicaceae Willow family


Populus Poplar, aspen, cottonwood
This genus contains anywhere between 25 and 35 species of trees, some of which are indeed majestic, growing to 50 m tall, with a trunk diameter up to 2.5 m. They are native to the major part of the Northern Hemisphere, from subarctic areas southwards to Mexico, North Africa, Iran, the Himalaya, and China. These trees are deciduous, and several species display brilliant yellow foliage in the autumn, examples of which may be seen on the page In praise of the colour yellow.



Ancient poplars of an unidentified species, encountered between Raetihi and Ore-Ore, New Zealand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Trunk of an old poplar, eastern Funen, Denmark. A young common oak (Quercus robur) is seen in the foreground. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Populus x canadensis Canadian poplar
This hybrid between black poplar (P. nigra), which is native to Europe, south-western and central Asia, and North Africa, and eastern cottonwood, or necklace poplar (P. deltoides), which is native to the United States, south-eastern Canada, and north-eastern Mexico, is very commonly planted around the world, often along roads.



Pruned Canadian poplars along a road on the island of Langeland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Pruned Canadian poplars, illuminated by the morning sun on the island of Lyø, Denmark. The one in front resembles a gaping monster. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Bark of an old Canadian poplar, Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Populus ciliata Himalayan poplar
A large tree, growing to 20 m tall, with a thick, fissured bark on older trunks. The leaves are ovate to heart-shaped, long-pointed, finely toothed, to 25 cm long and 15 cm broad, with a very long stalk, to 13 cm. This species grows in forests, along streams, and in open areas between 1,500 and 3,600 m altitude, from Pakistan eastwards through southern Tibet to the Yunnan Province in China. It is widely cultivated in Tibetan areas, where its wood is used for construction, the branches to make roofs, and the foliage for fodder. A paste of the bark is applied to muscular swellings.



The Muktinath Temple is situated in a growth of old Himalayan poplars in the Jhong River Valley, Mustang, central Nepal. This temple, which is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, is described in detail on the page Religion: Hinduism. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Salix caprea Goat willow
A smallish, but quite thick tree, often reaching a height of 10 m, rarely 13 m. It is native to most of Europe, eastwards through southern Siberia to Central Asia, southwards to the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and Xinjiang.

In nature, most willow species do not grow very old. When about 50 years old, the goat willow has already started decaying. In nature Reserve Vorsø, Horsens Fjord, Denmark, I followed the decay of an old specimen for 38 years, from 1982 to 2020, when the last remains of the tree had almost disappeared.



An ancient, partly decayed goat willow with large moss cushions on the lower part of the trunks, Bryrup Langsø, Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)






Salvadora oleoides
This small tree with drooping branches, which grows to a height of c. 6 m, is common in arid areas of southern Iran, southern Pakistan, and north-western India. In Hindi, this species is called pilu, appearing in the great epic Mahabharata, in the Karna Parva, Chapter 30, v. 24: “When shall I be amongst those ladies, eating cakes of flour and meat and balls of pounded barley, mixed with skimmed milk, in the forests, having many pleasant paths of sami and pilu and karira!”

The fruit is edible, with a sweet taste, and a rich source of calcium. However, it may irritate the mouth, sometimes producing tingling and ulceration. The plant is utilized medicinally, the seed oil and leaves for treatment of rheumatism, the leaves also to relieve cough, the fruit for enlarged spleen, rheumatism, tumours, fever, and kidney and gallbladder stones. The wood is used for construction, agricultural implements, and boats, and locally it is an important fuel.

A near relative, Salvadora persica, is called toothbrush tree. For centuries, twigs of this species have been used as a natural toothbrush.



An ancient, gnarled specimen of Salvadora oleoides, Thar Desert, north-western India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Sapindaceae Soapberry family


Acer campestre Field maple
Growing to about 25 m tall, this species is native to most of Europe, from England, southern Denmark, and southern Sweden southwards to the Mediterranean, northern Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. It has been widely introduced elsewhere.



Old field maples, Langeland (top), and Nature Reserve Vorsø, Horsens Fjord, both in Denmark. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Acer platanoides Norway maple
This maple is native to Europe, found from southern Scandinavia southwards to the Pyrenees, Italy, and the Balkans, eastwards to Ukraine, and thence southwards to the Caucasus and Turkey. At an early stage, it was introduced to North America, where it has become invasive in many eastern states. For this reason, Massachusetts and New Hampshire have banned planting of this tree.



This ancient Norway maple grows in a park in the centre of the Old Town, Ystad, Skåne, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore maple
This tree, which is native to Central Europe, was introduced to Britain around 1500, and has also become naturalized in other parts of Europe, and in Australia, New Zealand, and North America. In many places, it has become invasive, easily spreading by its winged seeds, which are produced in the tens of thousands on a single large tree.

An example of the effective spreading of sycamore maple is seen on the island of Vorsø, a nature reserve in Horsens Fjord, Denmark. On this island, former fields were abandoned in two steps, in 1928 and in 1978. In both cases, thousands of maple seeds, stemming from a few trees in plantations at the edge of the fields, were spread by the wind. The succession of these maple forests is described in detail on the page Nature Reserve Vorsø: Expanding wilderness.



Furrowed bark of an old sycamore maple, Nature Reserve Vorsø, Horsens Fjord, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Trunk of an old sycamore maple with ivy (Hedera helix), Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Bark of an old sycamore maple, Balmaha, Loch Lomond, Scotland. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Aesculus Horsechestnut, buckeye
These trees are native to temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere, with one species in Europe, c. 10 in Asia, and 7 in North America. The generic name is the Latin name of the sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Fagaceae, see above), possibly derived from aigilops, the Greek name of an oak with edible acorns. As horsechestnut fruits are poisonous, it is indeed a bit of a mystery, why Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) named the genus Aesculus. However, it must be pointed out that the meal is edible after boiling the fruits, and it was formerly used as cattle and chicken feed.

The common name horsechestnut comes in part from the Turkish name of the European species, at kestanesi, and the horse-part stems from the usage of the fruits to treat ailments in horses, including excessive wind. The American common name buckeye stems from an American indigenous tribe, who called the nut hetuck, which means buck-eye, alluding to the markings on the nut, which resembles the eye of a deer.

An American species, the California buckeye (A. californica), is presented on the page Plants: Plants of Sierra Nevada, whereas Indian horsechestnut (A. indica) is dealt with on the page In praise of the colour yellow.


Aesculus hippocastanum Common horsechestnut, European horsechestnut
At an early stage, this species, which originally stems from the Balkans, was introduced to the major part of Europe, to Turkey, where it is today very conspicuous in Istanbul, and to North America.

The specific name is derived from the Greek hippos (‘horse’), and the Turkish name of the plant, at kestanesi, explained above.



Avenue of European horsechestnut trees in evening sun, Langeland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Bark of old horsechestnut trees, Funen, Denmark. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)






Madhuca longifolia
This tree, commonly known as mahua, mohulo, iluppai, or vippa chettu, is prominent in tropical mixed deciduous forests, native to the major part of northern, central, and southern India. It grows to about 20 m tall.

The flowers are edible and used to constitute an important food item for various tribal people. They are fermented to produce an alcoholic drink, named mahua, which is an essential part of traditional celebrations. The flowers are also made into jam, and into a syrup, which is taken for various ailments. The fruit is an important food item of tribal people in Odisha.



A sacred grove of mahua, Kokkare Belur, near Mysore, Karnataka. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Taxaceae Yew family


Taxus baccata European yew
This species is native to Europe, North Africa, south-western Asia, and northern Iran. In the Himalaya, it is replaced by a close relative, the Himalayan yew (T. wallichiana), which was formerly regarded as a subspecies of the European yew. Yew cones are highly modified, each cone containing only one seed, surrounded by a bright red, fleshy, berry-like aril, which is edible. The seed, however, is very poisonous.



Evening light on the trunk of a huge yew, about 1,600 years old, Alton Priors, Wiltshire, England. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The trunk of another ancient yew, Glendalough, Ireland. To the right, still clinging to the trunk, is a withered ivy (Hedera helix). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)






Tetrameles nudiflora
This huge rainforest tree can grow to a height of 45 m. It is distributed in the Indian Subcontinent and in Southeast Asia, southwards through Malaysia and Indonesia to northern Australia.



As is evident from these pictures, many of the Khmer ruins at Ta Prohm, Angkor Wat, Cambodia, have been enveloped by the roots of giant specimens of Tetrameles nudiflora. Other pictures from this impressive site are shown on the page Decay. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Khmer children, collecting edible seeds among the roots of a huge Tetrameles nudiflora, Ta Prohm. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)






Welwitschia mirabilis
This species, which is confined to the Namib Desert in western Namibia, is the sole surviving representative of an ancient family of cone-bearing plants, distantly related to conifers. In fact, Welwitschia is a tree, but most of it is underground, the roots obtaining water 20 m or more below the desert surface. This remarkable plant, and other aspects of Namibian nature, are described on the page Countries and places: Namibia – a desert country.



This Welwitschia, which was photographed near Swakopmund, is about 1,500 years old. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




(Uploaded June 2016)


(Latest update April 2023)