The rhododendron valley



Rhododendron arboreum is very common in the Himalaya, growing between 1,500 and 3,600 m altitude. It is the national plant of Nepal, called lali guras (’red rhododendron’). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




The eastern Himalaya and China are home to hundreds of rhododendron species. A tiny country like Bhutan, for instance, harbours more than 60 species. The further west you travel in the Himalaya, the fewer species you encounter. Eastern Nepal is home to c. 30 species, western Nepal to seven, and Kashmir to only four.

Most rhododendron species are shrubs or small trees, which bloom between March and July, with a peak in April-May. A majority of the species display flowers of various shades of red, yellow, or white, whereas violet and greenish are rarely seen.

In the Himalaya, rhododendron species occur in almost all vegetation zones, from subtropical to alpine, the major part growing between 2,000 and 4,000 m altitude. The largest species is Rhododendron arboreum, which can grow to 15 m tall. It is the national plant of Nepal, called lali guras. At the opposite end of the spectrum are various dwarf shrubs, such as R. nivale, R. lepidotum, R. anthopogon, and R. pumilum, the latter being only 10-15 cm high. Other species are epiphytes, such as the large-flowered R. dalhousiae and R. lindleyi.

Many of the plant species mentioned on this page are dealt with in detail on the page Plants: Himalayan flora.


A wilderness valley
The Arun River is one of the major rivers of eastern Nepal. The source of one of its tributaries, the Barun, is the glaciers at the foot of the mighty Makalu, at 8,463 m the fifth-highest mountain in the world, situated on the border between Nepal and Tibet. The Barun Valley is uninhabited, and very few people come here. It is one of the wildest and most remote of all alpine valleys in the Himalaya, and to preserve this unique wilderness for future generations, the valley and its surrounding mountains have been designated as a strict nature reserve, in which human exploitation is limited to an absolute minimum.

The Barun Valley constitutes a part of Makalu-Barun National Park, which was established in 1992, covering an area of c. 1,500 km2. To the west, the park borders Sagarmatha National Park, covering 1,148 km2, to the north the huge Qomolangma Nature Preserve in Tibet, covering c. 35,000 km2, and to the south a buffer zone, covering 830 km2. Thus, the valley is situated in the heart of an enormous protected area.

To hike in Makalu-Barun National Park, you need a permit from the National Park Office in Kathmandu, which can be obtained by paying a fee. Tents and cooking equipment must be brought along, as there are no facilities above the village of Tashigaon. Burning wood in the park is strictly prohibited. With an annual precipitation of c. 3,500 mm, the area is one of the wettest in Nepal. Even in May – well before the monsoon period – a hike in this park can become a rather wet experience, with many leeches.

This area is home to a tremendous number of plants – more than 3,000 species have been found within the park boundaries. In May, you may encounter no less than 25 blooming rhododendron species, and the park is also home to 47 orchid species, 48 primrose species, 19 bamboo species, and 15 species of the beech family, belonging to the genera Quercus, Cyclobalanopsis, Castanopsis, and Lithocarpus.

More than 400 bird species have been observed, and the park is also a refuge for several threatened mammals, such as clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), red panda (Ailurus fulgens), and Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster).


Hiking up the Arun Valley
The Barun Valley is indeed very remote, so in order to get there you must walk a fairly long distance. Towards the end of April 1991, my companion Lars Nørgaard Hansen and I, and our guide, Saila Tamang, fly from Kathmandu to the small town of Tumlingtar, situated in the tropical part of the Arun River Valley. Two days prior, our staff boarded a bus, bound for the town of Hille, from where they have reached Tumlingtar on foot.

The following morning, we commence our hike, heading north along a ridge on the eastern side of the valley. Up to an altitude of c. 1,800 m, most of the forest has been cleared for farmland. Along the trail, we often notice tiger’s milk-spruce (Falconeria insignis), formerly called Sapium insigne, a tree of the spurge family, which grows to 10 m tall. Its upright inflorescences appear late in winter or early in spring, before the leaves. Later, its tiny flowers turn into remarkable chocolate-brown fruits, the size of a pea.

Here and there are small patches of subtropical forest, among others comprising chir pine, or long-leaved pine (Pinus roxburghii), and chestnuts of the genus Castanopsis, whose seeds are edible. Many epiphytes adorn the trees, such as two species of mistletoe, Scurrula elata and Taxillus vestitus, and beautiful orchids of the genera Coelogyne and Dendrobium, the latter comprising no less than c. 26 species in the Himalaya.

On the forest floor, we observe bushes like Viburnum erubescens and Melastoma normale, the latter with beautiful reddish-violet flowers. Herbs include Cautleya gracilis, of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), and the peculiar Arisaema tortuosum of the arum family (Araceae).

In a grass-covered area, we find tiny, star-shaped, yellow flowers of Hypoxis aurea. This small genus constitutes a family of its own, Hypoxidaceae, which is closely related to the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae).

From the village of Num, a steep trail leads through terraced fields and lush patches of forest down to the Arun River. The altitude here is a mere 700 m, and the climate is hot and very humid – like in a Turkish bath. On the river bank, we observe an orchid, Dendrobium densiflorum, with a cluster of gorgeous yellow flowers.

A suspension bridge brings us to the western bank, from where we make a long, tough hike up to the village of Tashigaon, the last permanently inhabited village of the area. Along the terraced fields, we observe a number of weeds, including goat-weed (Ageratum conyzoides), a tiny St. John’s wort, Hypericum japonicum, a dayflower, Commelina paludosa, with blue flowers, downy bur-marigold (Bidens pilosa), which has white flowers, and an everlasting, Gnaphalium affine, with yellow flowers. – Goat-weed is described on the page Plants: Plants in folklore and poetry, whereas downy bur-marigold is dealt with in depth on the pages Nature: Invasive species, and Nature: Urban nature.



Nepal Boys in grass_resize
Near the small town of Tumlingtar, we camped in a patch of silver-headed grasses, in which these boys had fun, playing with a wheelbarrow. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
My companion Lars Nørgaard Hansen, wading across the Sabhya Khola, a tributary to the Arun River, near Tumlingtar. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
These Sherpa women have fun, using my binoculars. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



We met these children near the village of Sangrati, in the Arun Valley. It is often the duty of Himalayan girls, however young, to take care of a smaller sibling. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Five chestnut species of the genus Castanopsis grow in subtropical valleys of eastern Nepal. This picture shows inflorescences of Castanopsis indica. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
Arundina graminifolia is a large, ground-living orchid, which is fairly common in subtropical parts of Nepal. It has a wide distribution in Tropical Asia and further east into islands of the Pacific Ocean. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 2008
The upright inflorescences of tiger’s milk-spruce (Falconeria insignis) appear late in winter or early in spring, before the leaves. This tree of the spurge family grows to 10 m tall. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Dendrobium is an epiphytic orchid genus, comprising no less than c. 26 species in the Himalaya. This picture shows Dendrobium densiflorum, growing on a bank along the Arun River, at an altitude of c. 700 m. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 2013
In a grassy area, we found tiny, star-shaped, yellow flowers of Hypoxis aurea. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Across snow-covered passes
Between c. 1,800 and 3,500 m altitude, a temperate mixed forest is found, with species like Magnolia campbellii, an oak, Cyclobalanopsis lamellosa, a maple, Acer campbellii, Himalayan hemlock (Tsuga dumosa), and a large rhododendron, R. arboreum. On the forest floor, we observe shrubs like Viburnum nervosum, the beautiful Daphne bholua var. glacialis, and Deutzia bhutanensis, of the hydrangea family.

Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) was a British botanist, who, during the period 1848-1850, described no less than 22 new rhododendron species from Sikkim and other parts of the eastern Himalaya, among these the gorgeous Rhododendron dalhousiae, which was named in honour of Lady Dalhousie, wife of George Ramsay, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie, who was governor-general in India in the first half of the 1800s. Lady Dalhousie was an avid collector of plants. R. dalhousiae is an epiphytic species, which displays a profusion of lemon-coloured flowers, which later turn yellowish-white.

Other epiphytes include a dwarf shrub, Agapetes serpens, whose amphora-shaped flowers are red with darker markings, and a common climber is Holboellia latifolia, which belongs to a small Oriental plant family, Lardizabalaceae. A mat-forming wintergreen, Gaultheria trichophylla, grows on moss-covered rocks, easily identified by its almost luminous, blue berries, which are edible. A picture, depicting these berries, may be seen on the page Plant hunting in the Himalaya: Rainy season in Nepal.

Herbs in this zone include two other Arisaema species, A. griffithii and A. costatum, a meadow-rue, Thalictrum virgatum, with rather large, white flowers, a pink primrose, Primula petiolaris, and Paris polyphylla, a close relative of the European Herb Paris (P. quadrifolia). From a rocky ridge near Kauma, we can enjoy a magnificent view towards Kangchendzonga, at 8,586 m the third-highest mountain in the world.

To enter the Barun Valley, we must cross two passes north-west of Kauma, Keke La and Shipton La, the maximum altitude being a mere 4,229 m. However, due to the topography of this area, precipitation is very high all winter, spring, and summer. For this reason, these passes are snow-covered until late June, and if you hike here without a guide, you may easily get lost.

On our way towards the Barun Valley in late April, we saw no flowering plants at all at these heights, and even on our return journey three weeks later, only three species were blooming: Bergenia purpurascens, of the saxifrage family, a violet primrose, Primula calderiana, and a rare member of the primrose family, Omphalogramma elwesiana, for which these passes constitute a core area.



Deutzia is a genus of shrubs of the hydrangea family. The flowers of the species shown here, Deutzia bhutanensis, are purplish, whereas the other two Himalayan species have snow-white flowers. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
Rhododendron dalhousiae is an epiphytic species, displaying a profusion of lemon-coloured flowers, which later turn yellowish-white. – Tashigaon, Arun Valley. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Agapetes serpens is a small epiphytic shrub, belonging to the heath family. It also comes in a form with white flowers. This genus has five members in the Himalaya. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



In this picture, my companion Lars is seated near a specimen of Arisaema griffithii – a strange plant of the arum family (Araceae). It can be identified by its very short peduncle and the curled-up spathe. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



This girl is carrying fodder for the family’s cattle from the forest to her home in the village of Navagaon. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



On our way across the Shipton La Pass, we met these porters, struggling through snow and fog. Note that the woman is bare-footed. If she had been one of our porters, we would have bought her a pair of sneakers! (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




The rhododendron valley
North of the passes, the route along the Barun River leads across dramatic stone slides, over a distance of about 2 km. New slides constantly change the ‘trail’, which is sometimes very hard to find. Furthermore, larger or smaller stones sometimes come tumbling down towards us, so we keep a sharp look-out. We are indeed relieved, when the last of the slides is over and done with.

In the Barun Valley, the mountain slopes are covered in forest, chiefly of Himalayan silver fir (Abies spectabilis) and Himalayan birch (Betula utilis). Lower strata of the forest are often a dense tangle of large shrubs, comprising three rhododendron species, R. hodgsonii, R. campylocarpum, and R. falconeri. These thickets are a fine habitat for the rare Himalayan musk deer, and also for the beautiful blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus), named after the tear-shaped, red streaks on the breast of the cock.

The remaining rhododendron species in the Barun Valley are smaller, including R. fulgens, R. thomsonii, R. ciliatum, R. cinnabarinum, and R. wightii.

In May, herbs of the valley have only just begun to bloom. The beautiful pink Diapensia himalaica grows here and there, and we also observe Adonis nepalensis, which closely resembles the European spring adonis (A. vernalis), but is smaller. Other species include a cushion-forming saxifrage, Saxifraga pulvinaria, the yellow-flowered Corydalis govaniana, and a small violet primrose, Primula atrodentata. On the slopes, we observe a tiny dwarf shrub, Rhododendron pumilum, which is rather common in this valley, but is otherwise rare in Nepal.

At Neh, an ominous black rock wall rises almost vertically from the valley floor. Here, the valley makes a sharp, ninety-degree turn towards west. We observe lammergeiers (Gypaetus barbatus), gliding effortlessly along the rock wall, searching for bones, which they carry high up in the air, letting them fall onto the rocks, after which they eat the marrow of the splintered bones. South of the valley is a towering, snow-covered mountain, Peak 7 (6185 m), from which a glacier, covered in moraine, slowly slides into the valley.

Nepal 1991a
Our guide Saila Tamang, standing in a dense growth of Rhododendron hodgsonii in the Barun Valley. This species is easily identified by its dense inflorescences and large leaves. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Everest 2010
In places, the beautiful, pale-yellow inflorescences of Rhododendron campylocarpum brighten large tracts of forest. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Rhododendron fulgens, its leaves covered in rime. Many rhododendron species are very hardy. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Rhododendron wightii has large, white flowers with red blotches inside. In the background a black rock, named Neh. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Rhododendron thomsonii is easily identified by its red calyx and wax-like flowers. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Rhododendron cinnabarinum has oblong, usually dark red flowers. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The beautiful blood pheasant is named after the tear-shaped, red streaks on the breast of the cock. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
The pink Diapensia himalaica is rare in Nepal, but in the Barun Valley it grows here and there. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
The pretty Adonis nepalensis closely resembles the European spring adonis (A. vernalis), but is smaller. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




At the foot of Makalu
Heading west in the Barun Valley, most of the larger rhododendron species soon vanish, giving way to a juniper, Juniperus indica, and dwarf shrubs like Rhododendron anthopogon and a tiny willow, Salix hylematica. Rufous-breasted accentors (Prunella strophiata) are perched on the juniper bushes, and Apollo butterflies (Parnassius) flutter about.

In the grass, grandalas (Grandala coelicolor), of the thrush family (Turdidae), are feeding. The gorgeous males are bright blue, while females are brown, with faint white stripes on breast and back. In rocky areas, we often observe large, greyish-white gamebirds, Tibetan snowcocks (Tetraogallus tibetanus). At dawn, their powerful call, gukka-gukka-guk-guk-guk-grrr, can be heard from far away.

On the south-side of the valley, Peak 6 (6739 m) is towering towards the sky, whereas three other peaks, Chonku Chuli (6809 m), Baruntse (7220 m), and Peak 4 (6720 m) are situated at the end of the valley. Small avalanches of snow and rocks constantly tumble into the valley from glaciers and mountain slopes.

Further west, the juniper shrubs become stunted and wind-blown. In this harsh environment, we find very few blooming herbs, two small gentians and a violet-flowered member of the mustard family. Most of the valley floor is occupied by the huge Barun Glacier, the major part of it covered in eroded soil and rocks.

From a sandy plain, Merak, we head north, following a ridge, which ends on a tiny plateau, situated at an altitude of c. 5,300 m. From here, we have a fantastic view towards numerous towering mountains, including Makalu, Lhotse (8511 m), and Sagarmatha (8850 m).



Nepal 1991a
The harsh Upper Barun Valley with the towering Peak 3 (6477 m) and Peak 5 (6404 m). In the foreground deposited moraine alongside the Barun Glacier. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Everest 2010
The male grandala is a gorgeous bird of the thrush family (Turdidae). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



Nepal 1991a
Even in May, the climate in the Upper Barun Valley is often severe. One night we were surprised by a snow storm. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)



The large Tibetan snowcock is restricted to upper alpine areas of the Himalaya. It is able to run very fast and is rarely observed flying. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)




Polunin, O. & A. Stainton 1984. Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press
Stainton, A. 1988. Flowers of the Himalaya. A Supplement. Oxford University Press




(Uploaded April 2016)


(Latest update August 2020)