Musicians

 

 

During a music festival, orchestras from various local villages gather in the village of Prägraten, Virgen Valley, Tirol, Austria. Most members are clad in traditional dress. The white feathers in some of the hats symbolize the so-called chamois ‘feathers’ – a tuft of hairs from the back of the chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). In former days, Austrian hunters would attach this tuft to their Tyrolian hat.

 

Alperne 2016a
Alperne 2016a
Musicians, performing during a festival in Prägraten, Virgen Valley, Tirol. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nepal 1991
Monks, blowing huge horns during a Buddhist initiation ceremony, taking place outside a Tibetan monastery next to the Bodhnath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal. – You may read about this stupa, and about Buddhism in general, elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Buddhism. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Skandinavien 2001-14
Musicians, performing with classical music on a city square in Stockholm, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2017b
This theatre group in Taichung, Taiwan, named U-Theatre, perform the ‘Sword of Wisdom’ – combined drumming and dancing with sticks. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

One of the earliest instruments was the drum – originally probably a hollow tree trunk, beaten with a stick. Drumming is of great attraction to almost everybody, appealing to our deepest instincts. A selection of photographs below shows various types of drumming.

 

Taiwan 2014
Drumming appeals to our deepest instincts. This Taiwanese child clearly enjoys drumming. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

USA-Canada 1992
Steel drums are an important feature on the island of Trinidad. This Trinidad drummer is performing in the streets of San Francisco, California. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Kanariske Øer 2006
Drummers, participating in a street carnival, Los Christianos, Tenerife, Canary Islands. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indien 1994
This drummer is performing at a camel festival, taking place in the city of Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Drumming is a very important part of any Daoist event in Taiwan – temple festivals, parades, theatre performances, even funerals. – Read about Daoism elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Daoism in Taiwan.

 

Taiwan 2015
Taiwan 2015
During a Daoist parade in the city of Taichung, celebrating Chinese New Year, this long line of drums is pulled by a car (top), while a small boy is beating a huge drum (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2017
A Daoist lion dance, accompanied by drums, is performed in front of a shop in Taichung. Such ceremonies supposedly bring good luck. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014
Taiwan 2014
Taiwan 2014
Taiwan 2014
During a performance in Taichung, the faces of these members of the Chio-Tian Folk Drums & Arts Troupe are decorated, depicting Daoist devils, or Bajiajiang. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

A simple type of drum is the tabla, which is beaten with the fingertips.

 

Nepal 1994
This Newar is beating a tabla during the Hindu festival of Bisket Jatra, celebrated in Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The tika mark on his forehead, a mixture of mustard oil and red powder, also contains rice kernels, indicating that an important festival is taking place. His hat, called a topi, is typical of the Newar people. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
Musicians, playing tablas and cymbals, participate in a procession, which brings offerings to a Hindu temple near Ubud, Bali, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nordindien 1997
These men play tablas during the annual Sonpur Fair in Bihar, northern India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indien 2003
Muslim musician, performing on a tabla, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Malaysia 1984-85
Drummer and tabla player, Kota Bharu, Malaysia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Jain temples in western India are renowned due to their exquisite carvings in white marble. – Read about some of these marvellous temples, and about Jainism in general, elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Jainism.

 

Nordindien 1991
Tabla players, carved into a marble column in the Vimal Vasahi Jain Temple at Dilwara, Mount Abu, Rajasthan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indien 2003
This carving, depicting a female tabla player and a female flutist, adorns the Jain temple atop the Shetrunjaya Hill, near Palitana, Gujarat. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Yet another very simple type of ‘drum’ is the gong, a flat, circular metal disc, beaten with a mallet. This instrument is typical of China, Taiwan, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

 

Taiwan 2015
Gongs are a very common feature during Daoist festivals in Taiwan. This large gong was seen in the Longde Temple (‘Dragon Virtue’) in Fenyuan, western Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Filippinerne 1984
During a wedding celebration in the village of Sagada, northern Luzon, Philippines, these Bontoc tribal women perform a dance, while men are beating gongs. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydøstasien 1975
Batak tribals in the village of Tomok, Samosir Island, Sumatra, Indonesia, play drums, a clarinet-like instrument, and a gong. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Blowing through various tubes to produce sounds is another very early type of music. This has evolved into a bewildering array of blowing instruments: flutes, lurs, horns, clarinets, to name but a few.

 

Sydlige Afrika 1996-97
These cave paintings in McIlwaine Game Park, Zimbabwe, which were made by San people (‘Bushmen’), depict dancing people and a flute player. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sverige 2015
This Bronze Age carving on a stone slab in Kivik Royal Tomb, Skåne, Sweden, depicts people, blowing on lurs. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sri Lanka 1974-75
This boy in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, makes a living as a snake charmer, playing his flute to make a cobra (Naja naja) ‘dance’ in time with the music. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nepal 1991a
Celebrating The Buddha’s birthday at the Bodhnath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal, these monks play on flutes, made from human femurs. – Read more about this stupa, and about Buddhism in general, elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Buddhism. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Guatemala 1998
Men, blowing huge, winding horns during a catholic procession in the city of Antigua, Guatemala, honouring Santa Clara of Assisi (1194-1253), one of the first followers of St. Francis. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2015
Taiwan 2015
During a Daoist festival, dedicated to the god of medicine, Bao Shang, these old men in the Daoist Longde Temple (‘Dragon Virtue’), Fenyuan, western Taiwan, play on clarinet-like instruments (top), while women are beating a huge drum (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 1997-98
Mali tribal, playing a flute, Odisha (Orissa), India. – More pictures of Indian tribals are found elsewhere on this website, see Gallery: People – Tribals of India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indonesien 1985
This Balinese wood carving depicts a man, playing on a bamboo flute. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
During a Hindu temple festival in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia, women play on various types of flutes and xylophones. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nordindien 1997
Celebrating the Hindu festival Dassera, or Durga Puja, these men in the city of Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, India, blow on huge brass horns. – Read more about Hindu festivals elsewhere on this website, see Travel episodes: India 1991 – Attending Hindu festivals in Rajasthan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Ethiopien 1996
Priest, blowing a horn during the Orthodox Christian festival Timkat, celebrated in the town of Lalibela, Ethiopia. – Read more about this festival elsewhere on this website, see Travel episodes: Ethiopia 1996: Timkat – a Christian festival. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2009
Men blow on long brass horns during a Daoist festival, dedicated to the Mother Goddess Mazu, celebrated in the town of Pitou, Taiwan. – Read more about Mazu, and about Daoism in general, elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Daoism in Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

A third type of instrument is the string instrument, in which you strike your finger nail, or another hard object, on metal strings, amplifying the produced sound in a gourd, or some other hollow object. Or you may rub something, like cat’s hair, on the strings to produce a sound.

 

Skandinavien 2001-14
Violinists, performing at the Himmelsberga Museum, Öland, Sweden. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Skandinavien 2001-14
At the Himmelsberga Museum, this woman is playing an old hurdy-gurdy-like Swedish instrument, called nyckelharpa. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2017b
During a Kabuki (Japanese theatre) performance in Huwei, Taiwan, this musician is playing on a shamisen, or sangen (both words mean ‘three strings’), a traditional Japanese string instrument, on which you use a broad plectrum, called a bachi. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Zimbabwe-Kenya 1994
A blind musician and his assistant, of the Shona tribe, perform on the street in Harare, Zimbabwe. While playing a guitar, the man is moving a puppet with his toes, making it ‘dance’ in time with the music. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indien 2003
During a performance at Zainabad, Gujarat, western India, these Sidis (Indians of African descent) play drums and a string instrument, called a malunga. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Asien 1972-73
Wandering minstrels, playing on a local string instrument and a tabla, Luristan, Iran. (Photo Arne Koch Christoffersen, copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydøstasien 1975
Iban tribal, playing on a traditional string instrument, called a sapé, Sungei Kakus, Sarawak, Borneo. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

USA 2016
Young street performer, playing a violin, Old Portland, Maine, United States. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Tanzania 1990
Wandering minstrel, playing on a local string instrument, Litipo Forest, southern Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The harp is an advanced type of string instrument, played with the fingers.

 

 

Egypten 1999
 In Ancient Egypt, the god Bes was defending the good and fighting the evil. This relief in the temple of Hathor, Philae, Aswan, depicts this deity, playing on a harp. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Various other pictures, relating to music.

 

 

 

 

USA 2000-01
USA 2000-01
Re-enacting scenes from the American Revolution, near Fort Ticonderoga, Lake Champlain, New York State, volunteers perform as English troops, marching into battle (top), and as a young flutist, marching with revolutionary troops (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bornholm 1999-2005
According to certain puritanical Christian sects, this mural in Povls Church, Bornholm, Denmark, depicts serious sins, such as playing music, dancing, and playing games. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Afrika 1980-81
This man from Zaire is playing on a thumb piano, locally called mbira or kalimba, a musical instrument, consisting of a wooden board, fitted with a resonator. On the board, metal tines of uneven length are attached, and you play by holding the instrument in both hands, plucking at the tines with your thumbs. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Fyn 2005-09
Klokkestenen (‘The Bell Stone’) is a dolmen from the Stone Age (c. 3000 B.C.), situated on the island of Lyø, Denmark. The small depressions in the stone are made over time by thousands of people, hitting the stone with a small rock, hereby producing a bell-like sound. – Read more about megalithic structures elsewhere on this website, see Culture: Megaliths. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nepal 1985
Army musicians perform during a wedding procession in Kathmandu, Nepal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
 A wandering musician and his assistant enjoy a break outside the Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. The musician has only one leg – the artificial one is seen to the right. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2006-07
During the Daoist Boat Burning Festival, taking place in the village of Jiading, near Kaoshiung, Taiwan, musicians march in front of the boat, prior to the burning. – Read more about this festival, and about Daoism in general, elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Daoism in Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2009
Musicians, made from joined pieces of painted wood, Shenghsing, Taiwan. – More pictures of similar handicrafts are found elsewhere on this website, see Culture: Folk art of Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Jylland 1991-95
Moving a piano into a farm house, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydindien 2000-01
This sculpture in the Hindu temple Brihadisvara, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, South India, depicts a being, blowing into a bag-pipe. It is similar to the European gargoyle, acting as support for a drainage pipe for rain water. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Alperne 1968-2001
Almost all cows, grazing on mountain meadows in the Alps, wear bells, creating music when they move around on the meadows, like this one near Säntis, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2012
Wind-charms, made from bamboo stems, create music in windy weather. This one was seen in Lugu, Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

(Uploaded September 2017)

 

(Revised continuously)