Boats

 

 

Varanasi 2008
Dawn at the Ganges River, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. For Hindus, this river is the most sacred of all. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Guizhou 2009
Punting a boat along a watercourse at the outskirts of a large marshland, named Cao Hai (‘Grass Sea’), Guizhou Province, China. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Jylland 1967-76
Fisherman, wading out to his boat, Nissum Fjord, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Frankrig-Spanien 2007
Sailboat on the Seine River, Paris. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Boats have been used since prehistoric times, maybe as early as a million years ago. The first ’boats’ were probably floating tree trunks, on which early people were able to cross streams. The first manufactured boats were dugout canoes, made by hollowing out a tree trunk, using ax or fire, or both. The oldest excavated dugout canoes date from c. 8000 B.C., but dugouts must surely have been in use much earlier than that. Canoes, made from birch bark or animal hides, tied to a light wooden frame, were used at a very early stage in the Americas and in the Arctic. (Main source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boat, q.v. regarding other sources)

 

 

Afrika 1980-81
Dugout canoes are still in use in many places. In this picture, a boy is punting a dugout along a small stream near Gemena, Zaire. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Man, paddling a dugout canoe, Otter Point, Lake Malawi. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Fishermen and dugout canoes, Lake Lutamba, southern Tanzania. The birds are hamerkop (Scopus umbretta), hoping for tidbits. This bird is presented in detail on the page Fishing. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Zambia 1993
The catch of the day has been placed in a dugout canoe, Lochinwar National Park, Zambia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydlige Afrika 1996-97
These men in the town of Samfya, northern Zambia, are carving a dug-out canoe from a eucalyptus trunk. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Comorerne 1988
In this picture from Itsoundzou, Grande Comore, Comoro Islands, a dugout canoe is being repaired by filling it with water to soften it, which makes it possible to reshape it. Coconuts are thrown into the boat to take up space, so that less water has to be poured into it. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Rafts are another very early type of boat. They are flat-bottomed vessels, consisting of light tree trunks, bamboo stems, bulrush (Schoenoplectus), papyrus (Cyperus papyrus), or reed (Phragmites australis), bound together with rope or bark strips. Reed boats were common in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, on Lake Titicaca, and probably also on Easter Island. They are still used by the Uru people on Lake Titicaca. The earliest remains of a reed boat were excavated in Kuwait, dating back c. 7,000 years.

 

Reed boats were common in Ancient Egypt. The relief in the picture below, found in the Horus Temple in Edfu, probably depicts a reed boat, highly swung at bow and stern, which are shaped as images of Horus, one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. Note that the image of the boat is repeated at a smaller scale. Although the birds above the boat resemble griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), they supposedly depict Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). This bird was a deity, named Nekhbet, nurse of the Pharaohs.

 

 

Egypten 1999
(Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

On Lake Tana, Ethiopia, reed boats have been made from papyrus stems since the 9th Century B.C., or earlier. The simplest type is merely a bundle of papyrus, tied together.

 

 

Ethiopien 1996
Girl, punting a very simple papyrus boat, Lake Tana. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Papyrus boats, however, can also be of considerable size, carrying huge loads, as this one on Lake Tana, heavily laden with fodder. A huge growth of papyrus is seen in the background. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Another simple type of raft consists of bamboo stems, tied together.

 

 

Kina 1987
Bamboo raft on the Li River, Guangxi Province, southern China. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

For thousands of years, tamed great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo ssp. sinensis), have been utilized by Chinese fishermen for fishing. This bird is described on the page Nature Reserve Vorsø: Night in the cormorant city, and other cormorant species are presented on the page Silhouettes.

 

 

At night, this man is paddling his bamboo raft down the Li River, fishing with the help of cormorants. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

At an early stage, boats were depicted by pre-historic men, as rock carvings or cave paintings.

 

 

Skandinavien 2001-14
Skandinavien 2001-14
Bronze Age rock carvings are very common in Scandinavia. These carvings, depicting boats, are from Bohuslän, Sweden. In the lower picture, two men are in battle. The animal depicted in the upper left corner is a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). – Other pictures from the same area may be seen on the page Culture: Folk art around the world. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Malaysia 1984-85
Ancient cave painting, depicting people and boats, Painted Cave, Niah National Park, Sarawak, Borneo. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

At an early stage, large wooden boats of various types were utilized in trade several places around the world, including in northern Europe (Viking ship), Arabia (dhow), India (uru), and China (junk).

 

For thousands of years, Arabs were trading along the East African coast, sailing in their typical dhows – an ancient Arabian type of sailboat. Africans have adopted the dhow, and today you still see them in large numbers along the East African coast.

 

 

Tanzania 1988
This dhow was photographed near Somanga, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

The Chinese junk is a type of sailing ship, which was – and to some degree still is – used by Chinese traders throughout Southeast Asia. This boat type was developed during the Song dynasty (960–1279).

 

 

Kina 1987
Chinese junk, sailing up the Xi River, Guangdong Province, southern China. Rain clouds are looming on the horizon. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

The Oseberg Ship is a very well-preserved Viking ship, unearthed in 1904 from a large burial mound near the Oseberg farm in Vestfold, Norway. It is thought to date from about 800 A.D.

 

 

Skandinavien 2001-14
Today, the Oseberg Ship is displayed in the Vikingskipshuset (Museum of Viking Ships), Oslo. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The carving below, near the stern of the Oseberg Ship, depicts the Midgard Serpent, or Jormungand, a giant, which had assumed the form of an enormous monster. The gods tried to drown it by throwing it into the cosmic sea, but it merely wound itself around the entire Midgard (abode of humans), biting its own tail. A völva (a prophetess) had foretold that at Ragnarok, when the world comes to an end, Thor will fight a final battle with the Midgard Serpent, which he succeeds in killing, but he himself will succumb to the monster’s poison.

 

 

Skandinavien 2001-14
(Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Naturally, boats were also used in warfare. Herodotus (c. 484-425 B.C.) is the earliest historian to record the use of boats for military purposes.

 

 

Cambodia 2010
This relief at Angkor Thom, Cambodia, depicts Khmer warriors, paddling their boat into battle. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sjælland 2012-16
A reconstructed Viking warship, named Havhingsten (‘The Sea Stallion’), is rowed by volunteers near the Vikingeskibsmuseet (Museum of Viking Ships), Roskilde, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

In Ancient Egypt, reed boats were succeeded by a small type of sailboat, the felucca, which is still a very common sight on the Nile.

 

 

Feluccas on the Nile. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

An outrigger is a boat with a slender log, placed parallel to the main hull on one side and attached to it by two curved branches, making the boat more stable in windy conditions. If a log is placed on both sides of the boat, its stability naturally increases. The following five pictures show outriggers.

 

 

Bali-Lombok 2012
Outriggers, painted in gay colours, Senggigi, Lombok, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Goa 2008
Fishermen, dragging their outrigger ashore, Colva Beach, Goa, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Filippinerne 1984
Fishermen in an outrigger, erecting a net near Batangas, Luzon, Philippines. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

This fisherman is checking his fish trap, made from split bamboo stems, Lake Bolgoda, Sri Lanka. This lake is presented in detail on the page Travel episodes – Sri Lanka 1976: Among alcohol brewers. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indonesien 1985
Outrigger with a sail, Sumbawa, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

For thousands of years, a huge marsh area in southern Iraq, between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, was the home of the Madan tribe, whose way of life was completely adapted to the wet habitat. They moved about in canoes, built their reed houses on islets, and made a living by hunting and fishing, growing rice, and raising water buffaloes.

The regime of Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (1979-2003) put an end to their way of life by draining the marshes, as a retaliation for the Madan siding with the Americans during the First Gulf War (1990-1991).

This interesting wetland is presented in depth on the pages Travel episodes – Iraq 1973: The hospitable mudir, and Iraq 1973: Dust storm and sheep’s head.

 

 

This picture shows a typical Madan dwelling, with houses constructed of reeds. The common means of transportation in the marshes was a slender type of canoe, called meshof. The trees are date palms (Phoenix dactylifera). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Madan children learned to paddle a canoe from a very young age. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Madan girl, harvesting reeds for cattle fodder, using a sickle. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Madan, sealing up leaks in a larger boat, a so-called belem (top). This boat type was used for transportation of large items, such as mats, made from reeds. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Early in history, people across the globe began living their entire life on board boats, for which reason they were called house boats. More pictures of house boats may be seen on the page Culture: A place to live.

 

 

House boats on the Li River, Guangxi Province, southern China. Tamed cormorants (see above) are resting on the shore. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

When Englishmen were ruling in India, they would escape from the blazing summer heat on the North Indian plains by retiring to the highlands further north. One of their favourite places was Kashmir, where the locals made an income from renting out house boats to the English. This practice was continued after India’s independence, when wealthy Indians – and later Western tourists – copied the British.

 

 

An elegant house boat on Lake Nagin, Kashmir. The tree to the left is an Oriental planetree (Platanus orientalis), displaying brilliant autumn foliage. This magnificent tree and other species of plane trees are presented on the page Plants: Ancient and huge trees. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sitting in his house boat, this man is trying his luck with a rod, Dal Lake. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Muslim family in their house boat in Srinagar, the main city of Kashmir. Note the hookah (water pipe) in the foreground. Using the attached tweezer, you take a piece of burning charcoal to light the pipe. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

In the Kashmir Valley, lakes and canals constitute important waterways for transportation of goods.

 

 

Movable grocery store. – This vendor is paddling his boat, laden with goods, from one houseboat to the next, Lake Nagin. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1997
Early in the morning, this man is paddling his boat across Dal Lake. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Traffic on one of the main channels through Srinagar. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Women, collecting water lilies (Nymphaea) for fodder, Dal Lake. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Little boy – large canoe, Lake Nagin. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

The following 8 pictures show various types of fishing vessels.

 

 

Taiwan 2014b
Colourful fishing vessels, Wushe Fishing Harbour, eastern Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bornholm 1999-2005
Fishing vessel, reflected in water, Nexø Harbour, Bornholm, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bali-Lombok 2012
Fishing boat, returning to Senggigi, Lombok, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tyrkiet 2018a
Tiny fishing vessel, Mordogan, Karaburun Peninsula, near Izmir, Turkey. Note the faded image of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, birth name Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa (1881-1938), who was the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first president 1923-1938. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nowadays, most fishing vessels in Denmark are anchored in harbours. A few places, though, like here at Torup Strand, Jutland, fishermen still haul their boats ashore, using huge winches. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2014b
Taiwan 2014b
These fishing vessels in Wushe Fishing Harbour, eastern Taiwan, are constructed of thick metal pipes, bent up at bow and stern. The fender is an old car tyre. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

When this fishing vessel in Lambert’s Bay, South Africa, had been abandoned for some time, it was inhabited by Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis), which built nests several places on the vessel. – Read more about cormorants on the pages Silhouettes, and Nature Reserve Vorsø: Night in the cormorant city. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Varanasi, situated on the shores of the sacred Ganges River, northern India, is the most sacred of India’s seven sacred cities. It is estimated that at any time about half a million pilgrims visit this city. A bath in the river here is considered to be especially cleansing, and every day, thousands of pilgrims take a ritually cleansing bath in the river, convinced that its sacred waters will remove their sins and give them a better life. Many old or ill people go to Varanasi to die and be cremated on the banks of the Ganges, their ashes afterwards being strewn in its waters.

 

 

Nordindien 1991
Boats on the Ganges River at dawn. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

River barge and rowing boat in morning mist, Ganges River. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

This diminutive ferry boat brings passengers across the Ganges River. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

This man makes a living, rowing tourists up and down the Ganges River. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

In the South Indian state of Kerala, a huge wetland stretches along the coast, between the towns of Kochi in the north and Kollam in the south. Close to these towns, the water is brackish, as sea water is often blown into the wetland here, whereas the area north and south of Alappuzha is freshwater, as this area is fed by rivers from the West Ghat Mountains. This wetland, called kuttanad, is better known among tourists as the backwaters. In the 1800s, it covered around 1,000 km2, but draining has reduced this area to c. 350 km2.

Ferries and tourist boats ply these waters between various towns, and a boat trip provides an insight into the daily rural life in Kerala. The lakes of this wetland are connected by channels and canals, along which stretches low banks with long rows of waving coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), and an abundance of homes, from magnificent villas to huts made of palm leaves. People wash clothes or children, tend rice fields, paddle canoes, laden with fodder for cattle, or walk along paths along the channels, carrying loads on their head. Great longboats, called kettu vallam, laden with goods or fodder, are driven forward by men, using bamboo poles, or by sail.

The coconut palm is a very important plant in this area of India. Oil and copra (dried coconuts) are utilized in cooking and for lamps, whereas the leaves are woven into mats, used as walls and roofs in houses. The fibres surrounding the nut are woven into rope and mats, and the nutshells are burned to make charcoal. Wood from the trunk is utilized as timber or firewood.

In larger lakes and marshes, long lines of fishing nets are erected. They are also used at night, with lamps to lure the fish. Various birds are perched on the net poles, including great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo ssp. sinensis), white-headed brahminy kites (Haliastur indus), herons, and kingfishers. In places, the surface is covered in floating leaves of water lilies (Nymphaea), together with two naturalized species, the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which has pretty, blue flowers, and a small fern, Salvinia. These two species spread uncontrollably, and sometimes they block the flow of water in the channels. They also block the passage of light into the deeper water, expelling animal life there.

Other threats to flora and fauna of the area include overfishing, pollution caused by chemical fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural usage, and draining. In former times, huge areas of mangroves were found in these wetlands, but the major part have vanished.

The great cormorant is presented on the page Nature Reserve Vorsø: Night in the cormorant city, whereas the water hyacinth is described on the page Nature: Invasive species. A picture of brahminy kite may be seen at Travel episodes – Sri Lanka 1982-83: The elephant charmer.

 

 

This large kettu vallam is laden with fodder. The trees in the background are coconut palms. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Some kettu vallams are rebuilt as luxury boats, transporting tourists around in the wetland. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

In certain fishing communities in southern Taiwan, people still celebrate the so-called Boat Burning Festival, a Daoist festival, during which a complete wooden boat is built, only to be burned as an offering to the god of diseases, Wang-yeh, hoping that he will spare the people of the plague and other dreadful diseases. In former times, the burning boat was pushed out to sea, ceremonially carrying the diseases away, but this practice has now been abandoned, and the boat is burned on land.

Daoism is presented in detail on the page Religion: Daoism in Taiwan.

 

 

Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Taiwan 2006-07
Boat Burning Festival, Jiading, near Kaoshiung. Before burning the boat, people donate offerings of fake paper money to Wang-yeh, throwing bundles of them on board the boat. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

On the island of Siao Liouchou, southern Taiwan, the practice of burning a boat during the Boat Burning Festival has been abandoned. Instead, fishermen place an image of Wang-yeh, or another local god, on board their vessel, whereupon they circumnavigate the island, hoping that this will suffice. Lots of fireworks are ignited during this circumnavigation.

 

 

Siao Liouchou 2012
I was invited on board this fishing vessel, circumnavigating Siao Liouchou Island. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Siao Liouchou 2012
Siao Liouchou 2012
Siao Liouchou 2012
Later in the day, people on Siao Liouchou carry countless palanquins, containing images of local gods, to the beach to perform a ritual cleaning of the palanquin and its image in the sea water, while men blow long brass horns. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

The Ayeyarwadi River, by the British called Irrawaddy, is the largest river in Myanmar.

 

 

Myanmar 2007
Boat on the Ayeyarwadi River at Bagan. The Buddhist Lawkananda Pagoda is seen in the background. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Myanmar 2007
Sunset on the Ayeyarwadi River, Bagan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Another important wetland in Myanmar is found around Lake Inle. The main thoroughfare in the town of Nyaung Shwe is a broad canal, leading out to this lake.

 

 

Myanmar 2007
Myanmar 2007
For transportation of passengers and goods in Nyaung Shwe, longboats with outboard engines are used, whisking the water into high plumes. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Myanmar 2007
Crowded passenger boat on the main canal in Nyaung Shwe. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

This Inthe man from the village of Nanthe, Lake Inle, brings home a huge load of grass, paddling his canoe with one leg – a style typical of this area. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

The Punan is one of several Malayan tribes, known by the common name Dayaks, which also include Iban, Kayan, Kelabit, and Penan. You may read about my adventures with Punan people on the page Travel episodes – Borneo 1975: Canoe trip with Punan tribals.

 

 

Punan men, punting their canoes, called perahu, up the Ba River, a tributary to the mighty Rajang River, Sarawak, Borneo. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Near the town of Puri, Odisha (formerly Orissa), eastern India, you can still watch fishermen, working the traditional way. Their flat-bottomed boats consist of planks, which are ’sewn’ together, using thick grass ropes. At dawn, the fishermen push these boats through the surf, placing a huge fishing net from the shore, so that it forms an inverted ‘U’. Now follows several hours of hard work, when the fishermen, often assisted by their wives, haul the net ashore. Usually, their catch is rather small, and in later years it has been further diminished due to overfishing by trawlers from Kolkata (Calcutta). The catch is placed in baskets or in carapaces of sea turtles, which the women place on their head, carrying it to their home just above the beach.

 

 

Sydindien 1997-98
Traditional Puri fishing boat. Its planks are ‘sewn’ together, using thick grass ropes. Durga – also known by the names Parvati, Devi, Uma, or Kali – is the most important goddess in the Hindu pantheon. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

At dawn, Puri fishermen push their boat out to sea. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

The Unga are a Bantu people, who live on islands in the great Bangweulu Swamps, northern Zambia. Their main occupation is fishing, and they also grow manioc, or kassava (Manihot esculenta), besides collecting a number of wild plants, such as rhizomes of water-lilies (Nymphaea) and roots of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus). They also hunt birds and antelope.

This interesting wetland is presented in detail on the page Countries and places: Bangweulu – where water meets the sky.

 

 

The only mode of transportation for the Unga people is by boat. This boy is punting a canoe along a channel in a papyrus swamp. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydlige Afrika 1996-97
Unga fishermen, hauling up their nets. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Unga men, bringing a load of dried fish to a market near the swamps. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Unga boys have made this toy boat out of clay. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Tonle Sap in Cambodia is the largest lake in Southeast Asia. This lake is home to a rather large group of Vietnamese, living in so-called ‘floating villages’ – houses built on pontoons or rafts, anchored to the lake bottom. More pictures from this area may be seen on the page Culture: A place to live.

 

 

Boats in a Vietnamese ‘floating village’, Tonle Sap. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Cambodia 2009
Women, paddling boats down a river near Tonle Sap. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

The Batak are a group of closely related Austronesian peoples, including the Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, Toba, Angkola, and Mandailing, who live in a large area of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. My acquaintance with these people stems from a visit to Lake Toba in 1975.

More pictures of Batak people may be seen on several other pages on this website, including People: Children around the world, Culture: Musicians, and Culture: Folk art around the world.

 

 

Sydøstasien 1975
Batak tribal boy, paddling a canoe, Pangururan, Samosir, Lake Toba. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

The remaining pictures on this page show various boat types around the world, or people working with boat implements.

 

 

Sewing a sail, Kuwait. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

School children on a ferry, crossing the Chao Phraya River, Bangkok, Thailand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Women, fishing up water plants to be used as fodder for their cattle, Phewa Lake, Pokhara, Nepal. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Canoe, negotiating rapids on the Oubangui River, Central African Republic. The land on the far side of the river is part of Zaire. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Fisherman, hauling his boat through the surf, Hambantota, Sri Lanka. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

At dawn, this boat passes Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, bringing bird watchers out to watch seabirds. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sail boats, returning to their anchorage in the evening, Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

This fisherman in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, is emptying his canoe of water, using a buoy, cut in half. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

This boy has paddled his canoe, laden with a few mango fruits, out to a ferry on Lake Malawi, and now a furious haggling over the price will begin. Read about my ferry trip on Lake Malawi on the page Travel episodes – Malawi 1997: A three-day ferry cruise on Lake Malawi. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Crowded ferry boat on the Li River, Guangxi Province, southern China. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Boat builder, shaping a plank for his boat, Phuket, Thailand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Anchored pleasure boats on a calm day, Christianshavn Canal, Copenhagen. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydasien 1978-79
Tourists, enjoying a boat trip down the Rapti River, searching for crocodiles, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydøstasien 1975
This passenger boat, a so-called sampan, is paddled across a river in the town of Kuching, Sarawak, Borneo. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tiny passenger boats ply the Rio Suerte, Costa Rica. The heavily loaded cargo boat to the right capsized a few minutes after leaving the quay! (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Fishermen, cleaning their net, Padang Bai, Bali, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Morning fog on the Rapti River, southern Nepal, where a man punts a tiny canoe ferry, holding a single passenger, across the river. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

‘Fungie’ is the name of a confiding male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), which has been in close contact with people in and around Dingle Harbour, Ireland, since 1983. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Combined passenger and cargo boat, plying the waters of Lago Atitlan, Guatemala. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2014b
Fisherman, cleaning a net on board his vessel, Wushe Fishing Harbour, eastern Taiwan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bangkok 2005-07
Bangkok 2005-07
At the floating market in Damnoensaduak, Thailand, people sell meals, vegetables, fruits, and various other items from their boats. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Looking up from the cockpit of a sailboat, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

(Uploaded September 2017)

 

(Latest update December 2019)