Graves

 

 

Californien 2013
Californien 2013
Californien 2013
Californien 2013b
Californien 2013
Veterans’ Graveyard, Cabrillo Memorial, San Diego, California. The tombstones are identical, apart from the engraved names of the deceased. In the bottom picture, a western wood pewee (Contopus sordidulus) takes off from a stone. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bornholm 2008-1 
The text on this old tombstone at Svaneke Church, Bornholm, Denmark, reads as follows: “Here lies the noble Lady Magdalene Margrete Hesler Müller, born in Haderslev on … 1652, died on December 6, 1706.” (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Alperne 2018
Grave stones of Catholic nuns in the town of Dorfen, Bavaria, Germany. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Cottage Grove Cemetery in Kern Valley, California, is a colourful place, in which many graves are adorned with various items.

 

Californien 2011
Californien 2013a
Graves of little children, adorned with toys, Cottage Grove Cemetery. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Californien 2011
This grave is adorned with plastic flowers and the American national flag, ‘Stars and Stripes’. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Californien 2013a
Grave, adorned with a ‘butterfly’. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sjælland 2017
Tombstone of a farmer with a relief, depicting a ploughing team, Zealand, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Pueblo Pampa Union is a deserted mining town north of Carmen Alto, Chile.

 

Chile 2011
Chile 2011
Chile 2011
Chile 2011
Chile 2011
Many of the graves in the cemetery of Pueblo Pampa are in various stages of decay. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Chile 2011
Grave with offerings of coins, Pueblo Pampa. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Comorerne 1988 
Cemetery, overgrown by a climber, corallita (Antigonon leptopus), Moroni, Grande Comore, Comoro Islands. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The brilliant Danish linguist Rasmus Rask (1787-1832), born Rasmus Christian Nielsen Rasch, wrote several grammars and worked on comparative phonology and morphology. He traveled extensively to study languages, first to Iceland, where he wrote the first grammar of Icelandic, and later to Russia, Persia (today Iran), India, and Ceylon (today Sri Lanka). Rask was the first linguist to draw a connection between the ancient Norse, and the Western and Eastern Germanic languages, as well as to point out the relationship between Lithuanian, Slavonic, Greek, and Latin.

 

Sjælland 1969-2005
Tombstone of Danish linguist Rasmus Rask, Assistens Churchyard, Copenhagen. Note the various languages engraved on the stone, e.g. runes, Hindi, and Arabic. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

At Gleann Dá Loch, or Glendalough (‘Valley of Two Lakes’), south-eastern Ireland, numerous ancient tombstones are centered around a ruined cathedral and the so-called Round Tower, built around 800 A.D. From this tower, Christians were called to prayer. – Read more about early Christianity elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Christianity.

 

Irland 1987-99
Ruined cathedral, tombstones, and the Round Tower, Gleann Dá Loch. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Irland 1987-99
Tombstones, one formed as a cross with a circle, Gleann Dá Loch. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

When they pass away, most Hindus are cremated, preferably at a sacred river, where the ashes of the deceased can be distributed in the holy waters. In Kathmandu, Nepal, most cremations take place along the sacred Bagmati River, a tributary to the mighty Mother Ganga. – Read more about Hinduism elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Hinduism.

 

dnepal-cremation-1_resize
Prior to the cremation, many rituals are performed by the relatives, e.g. throwing rice and dyes on the deceased. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

dnepal-cremation-2_resize
The body is placed on a platform on the river bank, covered in straw and wood, which is then ignited. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Daoist graves in Taiwan are often quite ornate, built to reflect the status and wealth of the deceased. The graves are often adorned with images of Daoist gods, various animals like lions and elephants, dragons which symbolize power, strength, and good luck, and Feng-Huang (often erroneously called ‘Chinese Phoenix’), which symbolizes virtue, duty, mercy, and grace.

Read more about gods, dragons, Feng-Huang and various other aspects of Daoism elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Daoism in Taiwan.

The following ten pictures show Daoist graves in the city of Taichung, Taiwan.

 

htaiwan_2012_556_p1_resize
This grave is guarded by the Daoist god of earth and agriculture, Tu-di-Gong. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014b
The text on this image reads ‘Dragon God’, but it probably depicts Tu-di-Gong. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014b
This grave is guarded by an elephant and a Daoist goddess. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014b
taiwan_2012_559_p1_resize
taiwan_2012_560_resize
Sculptures, depicting lions, are often placed as guards at Daoist graves. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2018b
This grave is adorned with images of Feng-Huang. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2018b
Daoist grave with food offerings and fake paper money, kept in place by a rock to prevent them from blowing away. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014b
On Tomb Sweeping Day, wild plants, which have invaded Daoist graves, are burned, the grave is cleaned, and the ancestors worshipped. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014b
When a Daoist tomb is no longer used, relatives often smash the grave and split the tombstone. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Tyrkiet 2006
Lycian cave graves, dating from the 4th century A.D., carved into a rockface near the present-day town of Fethiye, south-western Turkey. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Egypten 1999
Years ago, homeless people began to settle in a graveyard near the Hakim Mosque, Old Cairo, Egypt. Over the years, an entire community has evolved – a town within the town of the dead. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Europa 1972-2005 
Iron cross on a grave, Piirsalu, Estonia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Previously, Bontoc tribals of northern Luzon, Philippines, placed their deceased relatives in coffins, which were stacked in limestone caves. Today, most Bontocs are Christians, and this old custom is no longer utilized. The pictures below are from 1984, when the coffins were already in various stages of decay.

 

Filippinerne 1984
Filippinerne 1984
Coffins with remains of Bontoc tribals, stacked in limestone caves near the village of Sagada. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Hakka are a large minority in Taiwan, counting around 4.6 million, most of whom are descended from Hakka people, who migrated here from southern China around 1640.

 

Taiwan 2011
Taiwan 2011
Hakka tombs, near Miaoli, Taiwan. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

USA 1998-99 
Tombstones, New Lebanon, New York State. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Fyn 2005-08
Tombstone, depicting a sun and a pigeon, with green algae growing in the engravings. – Lyø Church, Funen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sjælland 1969-2005
Tombstone in a Muslim graveyard, Copenhagen, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

In November 1998, hurricane ‘Mitch’ created havoc in Guatemala and other Central American countries. Unofficial reports claimed that about 1,900 millimetres of rain was dumped by this hurricane. Unfortunately, its occurrence coincided with the Catholic Festival of the Dead, which takes place on November 1st and 2nd. However, this did not deter people from performing their usual ceremonies during this festival, including visits to cemeteries to honour deceased relatives. – Read more about Guatemala elsewhere on this website, see Travel episodes: Guatemala 1998 – Country of the Mayans.

 

Guatemala 1998
Guatemala 1998
Guatemala 1998
Despite heavy rainfall during the Festival of the Dead in 1998, people nevertheless gathered in this cemetery in Chichicastenango to decorate the graves of their relatives, and to burn candles or incense. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Guatemala 1998
New grave, adorned with grass, and a cross made from marigolds, Chichicastenango. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

Taj Mahal (‘Crown of the Palace’) is a mausoleum near the city of Agra, northern India, erected by Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan to honour his favourite wife, Arjumand Banu Begum, called Mumtaz Mahal (‘Chosen One of the Palace’). She died in 1630 after giving birth to her fourteenth child. Construction of this mausoleum lasted 22 years, from 1632 to 1654.

 

Nordindien 1985-86
Taj Mahal in morning fog. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nordindien 1985-86
Ornaments on the sarcophagus of Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan, Taj Mahal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

 

 

Bornholm 1999-2005 
Crater-shaped, Bronze Age burial mound on the island of Bornholm, Denmark, constructed of stones to form a cone with a depression in the centre. In Danish, this type of mound is called a ‘røse’. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Nabataeans were an Arab people, in Arabic called al-ʾAnbāṭ, who, around the 1st Century A.D., lived in the northern part of the Arabic Peninsula and in present-day Jordan and Israel. Their assumed capital was Raqmu, today called Petra, which had an estimated population of 20,000.

 

Asien 1977-78
Nabataean graves, built into eroded mountains, Petra, Jordan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Jylland 2000-05 
Tombstone with a Maltese Cross, Mårup Church, Jutland, Denmark. A Maltese Cross is a cross with four equal arms, each ending in two points. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Egypten 1999 
Evening sun on a graveyard near the Giza Pyramids, Egypt. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Henry Heerup (1907-1993) was an all-round Danish artist, whose works include paintings, drawings, lithographs, linoleum cuts, and stone sculptures, besides the so-called ‘trash models’, which were composed of old trash.

 

Sjælland 2006-11
Tombstone of Henry Heerup, adorned with one of his own drawings, Assistens Kirkegård, Copenhagen, Denmark. The red leaves in the foreground are Japanese maple (Acer palmatum). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Guatemala 1998
Guatemala 1998
In this cemetery in the city of Antigua, Guatemala, ashes of the deceased are placed in recesses in a wall to conserve space. The text in the upper picture reads as follows: ‘Old, my dear old José Guillermo España’. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Filippinerne 1984
Entertaining the dead: Young man, playing a concertina on a grave, adorned with a large Bougainvillea spectabilis, Bontoc, Luzon, Philippines. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Alperne 2018a
Alperne 2018a
Lavishly decorated Catholic graves in the village of Saletto, Chiusaforte, Dolomites, Italy, among other items sculptures, depicting Virgin Mary, and Jesus, being taken down from the Cross. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

USA 1998-99
Tombstone, overgrown by lichens, Pemaquid Harbor, Maine, United States. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydøstasien 1975 
Dayak tribal burial pole of a Punan chief, Sarawak, Borneo. – Read more about the Punan people elsewhere on this website, see Travel episodes: Borneo 1975 – Canoe trip with Punan tribals. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Norden 1992-98
Graveyard, Nuuk, Greenland. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Californien 2013a
Californien 2013a
Californien 2013a
Graves in the Cahuilla Indian Reservation Cemetery, near Anza, California. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Jylland 2006-12 
Tombstone of school principal Rasmus Bording and his wife Marie, Ry Church, Jutland, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bornholm 2008-2
This grave from the 1700s, situated on the islet of Christiansø, Bornholm, Denmark, contains the remains of a deceased German. The text reads as follows: “Anno 1737, den 6. Februari ist Schiffer Peter Fenger, von Lübeck, alhier in Gott, den Herrn, entsclaffen, und in diesem Grab begraben. Christus ist mein Leben, Sterben ist mein Gewin.” (“Anno 1737, on February 6, Skipper Peter Fenger, from Lübeck, has passed away to the abode of the Lord, and has been buried in this grave. Christ is my life, to die is my gain.”) (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

USA 2012a
Decorated tombstone, St. Patrick’s Cemetery, Huntington, Long Island, United States. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bornholm 1977-96 
Bronze Age grave, shaped like a ship, Bornholm, Denmark. – Read more about megalithic structures elsewhere on this website, see Culture: Megaliths. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sjælland 1969-2005
Sjælland 1969-2005
Two different seasons in a Jewish cemetery, Nørrebro, Copenhagen, Denmark. In the summer picture, a magpie (Pica pica) is sitting on one of the tombstones. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

In November 1618, the Danish King Christian IV ordered admiral Ove Giedde to sail to India with five ships. The aim of this journey was to establish a trading station under the Royal Danish East India Company, to be able to supply the Motherland with cheap spices and textiles. Two years later, Giedde and his crew reached the Coromandel Coast, at the mouth of River Kaveri in present-day Tamil Nadu, South India.

Following negotiations with the Prince of Thanjavur, Giedde obtained permission to build a trading station, which was called Trankebar (in English Tranquebar) – a corruption of the local Tamil name of the place, Tarangambadi, which means ‘singing waves’. In 1660, a fort was completed, named Dansborg (’Danish Castle’). Behind this fort, a town sprang up, fortified with moats and walls, through which a number of gates gave access to the town.

 

Sydindien 2000-01 
Gravestone at the New Jerusalem Church, Tranquebar, Tamil Nadu, South India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tyrkiet 2018
Simple Muslim gravestone, Istanbul, Turkey. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydlige Afrika 1996-97
Due to the rocky surface on Likoma Island, Lake Malawi, most graves are above ground, covered by small rocks. – Read more about Likoma elsewhere on this website, see Travel episodes: Malawi 1997 – A three-day ferry cruise on Lake Malawi. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Batak are a Malayan people, living in a large area, centered around Lake Toba, central Sumatra, Indonesia. – More pictures of this tribe are found elsewhere on this website, see Gallery: People – Tribals of the Sunda Islands.

 

Sydøstasien 1975 
Royal graves of the Batak tribe, Tomok, Samosir Island, Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Mashhad, eastern Iran, is a sacred city to the Shi’a Muslims. The origin of the two major denominations within Islam, Sunni and Shi’a, almost date back to the foundation of Islam. Following the death of the Prophet Muhammed, in 632 A.D., certain Muslims, who later called themselves Shi’a (from Shi’atu Ali, ‘followers of Ali’), only acknowledged direct descendants of the Prophet as his heirs, maintaining that God – via Muhammed – had selected his cousin, Ali ibn Abi Talib (601-661) – who was also his son-in-law – as the leader of Islam, called Imam. Ali’s sons, Hassan and Husain, were Imam number two and three, succeeded by their descendants.

In 681, Husain and his followers went to Iraq to fight against the Caliph of Damascus, who claimed that he was the true heir of Muhammad, selected by a council of elders. The Shi’a did not acknowledge this choice, maintaining that only God could appoint Muhammed’s heirs. In a battle at Karbala, Husain and his men were all killed, and from this day, the Caliphs of Damascus, and later Baghdad, held the power within Islam.

Instead of the caliphs, the Shi’a acknowledge a succession of 12 Imams, all descendants of the Prophet. They maintain that the 12th Imam, Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdi (868-941), disappeared, but will return in due time as the ultimate saviour of mankind and, together with Isa (Jesus Christ), bring peace and justice to the World.

In 818, the 8th Imam, Ali ibn Musa al-Riḍha (in Iran known as Imam Reza), was murdered by order of the Abbasid Caliph, al-Ma’mun. The place he was buried was called Mashhad al-Ridha (‘Martyrdom of al-Riḍha’), and in the late 9th Century, a dome was erected on the grave. Later, numerous other buildings were built on this place, today constituting the largest Islamic temple complex.

 

Sydøstasien 1975
Tiles on the outer wall, surrounding the mausoleum of Imam Reza, Mashad, Iran. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tyrkiet 2006
Tyrkiet 2006
Graveyard in the ancient Greek city of Hierapolis, near Pamukkale, Turkey. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

United Kingdom 1992-2002 
Old, lichen-covered tombstones in morning light, Drymen, Loch Lomond, Scotland. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

USA 2012a
Tombstones next to Cades Cove Primitive Baptist Church, from 1827, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, United States. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Irland 1987-99 
Stone cross in a graveyard, Boston, western Ireland. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Humayun, whose real name was Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad, was the second emperor of the Moghul Empire, comprising what is today north-western India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Humayun ruled in two periods, 1531-1540 and 1555-1556. He died in 1556, when he fell down the staircase to his library, hitting his head on the rough stone steps.

 

Nordindien 1997
Mausoleum of Moghul Emperor Humayun, Delhi, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sjælland 2006-11 
Grave, adorned with Christ on the cross, Holtug Church, Zealand, Denmark. – Read more about Christianity elsewhere on this website, see Religion: Christianity. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bornholm 2008-2
Old tombstone, overgrown by common orange lichens (Xanthoria parietina), Christiansø, Bornholm, Denmark. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Cecil John Rhodes (1853-1902) was a British businessman, who served as Prime Minister of the British Cape Colony 1890-1896. In 1895, together with his British South Africa Company, Rhodes founded the Territory of Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him.

 

Zimbabwe-Kenya 1994 
The grave of Cecil John Rhodes atop a rocky outcrop, a kopje, in Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

(Uploaded October 2016)

 

(Revised continuously)