Namibia – a desert country
The rays of the setting sun lent an even deeper reddish hue to the red dunes at Sossusvlei, which towered above us, the tallest reaching a height of about 275 metres. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
In the afternoon, my companions, Ann-Christine and Hans Lomosse, and I arrive at Sossusvlei, western Naminia. In Afrikaans, the language of the Dutch Boer settlers, vlei means ‘lake’, but there is no sign of a lake anywhere – the earth is bone-dry. In this parched desert land, a lake is only present after ample rain.
The sun is already low, about to set behind huge, reddish dunes. We park our car and walk towards the dunes, which soon tower above us, the tallest reaching a height of about 275 metres. Here and there, a lone acacia tree is testimony of the rain that occasionally falls in this area. Two gemsbok, or southern oryx (Oryx gazella) – a large antelope the size of a horse – are passing in front of a sand dune. One of them pauses for a long time, gazing intently at us before proceeding after its companion.
Tracks in the sand from beetles, scorpions, snakes, and lizards indicate that other wildlife is also present here. We hear a chuckling sound from the sky, emitted by flocks of pigeon-sized Namaqua sandgrouse (Pterocles namaqua), passing over on their way to a waterhole. The belly feathers of the male are fluffy, making them ideal to suck up a great deal of water while he is drinking. Returning to his chicks, deep in the desert, they are able to quench their thirst in his moist belly feathers.
We trudge up a high dune, following a ridge, which is created by westerly winds, blowing sand up the dune and over the tip of it, where it whirls around, before gliding down the back side of the dune. The sand is soft, our feet sinking in at every step. Our shadows grow ever longer, while the rays of the setting sun lend an even deeper reddish hue to the dunes – indeed a lovely sight.
Two large gemsbok, or southern oryx (Oryx gazella), passed us in front of a huge sand dune. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Inhabited by various peoples
The dunes of Sossusvlei constitute a part of the huge Namib Desert, which takes up a large portion of western Namibia. The climate of this enormous country, which covers about 825,000 square kilometres, is very dry, the greater part of it consisting of sandy deserts or rocky mountains with a sparse cover of trees and bushes.
The aboriginals of Namibia are the San – small, delicate people with apricot-coloured skin and frizzy ‘peppercorn’ hair. They lived here as hunter-gatherers for thousands of years. The Khoikhoi people arrived in Namibia about 4,000 years ago, and much later, various Bantu tribes migrated from the north and east into the country, bringing with them cattle and implements made of iron. Today, the largest ethnic group is the Ovambo, accounting for around half of the population, while other significant groups are Kavango, Herero, Damara, and Caprivi. The Himba are a distinctive group, living as herders in the Kaokoveld area. Many of them still wear animal skins as clothing, the women adorning their hair and body with an ochre powder.
The first white settlers were the Boers, who emigrated here from Holland in the 18th Century. They dubbed the San ‘Bushmen’ and the Khoikhoi ‘Hottentots’. The Bantu peoples, as well as the Boers, killed many San and Khoikhoi to get their land, and a number of the survivors were kept as slaves. The remaining San fled into the inhospitable Kalahari Desert, in which they were able to continue their traditional way of living, a few of them still practising this age-old tradition.
In the 19th Century, many Germans emigrated here, and in 1894 Namibia became a German colony. During World War I, the South Africans – who, naturally, were allies of the British – invaded Namibia and expelled the German government. The area became a South African mandate, and independence was not obtained until 1990.
Today, the total population of this vast country is only about 2.5 million. Most are Bantu, only about 200,000 are whites, Khoikhoi, or San. The capital is Windhoek, a relatively small city with about 350,000 inhabitants. Official languages are English, German, and Afrikaans.
Rock paintings are found in many parts of Namibia – artwork of the Khoikhoi and San peoples. This painting at Brandberg depicts men, hunting gemsbok (Oryx gazella). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
During World War I, the South Africans invaded Namibia and expelled the Germans. Remains from this invasion are still scattered in the Namib Desert. This picture shows rusted petrol cans and treads from a tank, all very well preserved in the dry air. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Cold current from Antarctica
The Namib Desert covers the western third of Namibia. This is the driest area in the country, receiving only about 20 millimetres of rain annually. A cold sea current, coming from Antarctica, is running north along the coast. The weather here is often cold, windy and foggy, and the annual mean temperature is as low as 13-17oC. Along the coast are scattered breeding colonies of jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus), white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), and various species of cormorant (Phalacrocorax). The huge sand flats of Walvis Bai (’Whale Bay’ in Afrikaans) is an important feeding area for many birds, especially waders and greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber).
The rocky coast at Cape Cross is home to a large colony of the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus), the only breeding seal species in southern Africa. When the females are about to give birth, they come ashore, gathering in huge colonies. The stronger bull seals have already established territories, waiting for the females. Each bull will do his best to gather a harem of females, mating with each of them about a week after they have given birth to a single pup. Six weeks old, the pup leaves the colony, following its mother into the sea, but she will continue to suckle the pup for almost a year. Black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea) often patrol the seal colony to eat dead pups – or to kill one, if its mother is not on the guard.
The rocky coast at Cape Cross is home to a large breeding colony of the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus). Six weeks old, a seal pup will follow its mother into the sea, but it still suckles for almost a year. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The strangest tree in the world
Almost every morning, fog drifts from the sea into the Namib Desert, thus giving precious humidity to plants and animals. The Namib Desert beetle (Stenocarpa gracilipes), which belongs to the family Tenebrionidae, has a very peculiar way of drinking. On foggy mornings, it creeps to the top of a dune, where it will point its rear end towards the sky. The fog settles as dew on its body, the water slowly running down its body and into its mouth.
In this arid desert grows one of the strangest plants in the world, Welwitschia mirabilis, which is the sole surviving representative of an ancient family of cone-bearing plants, distantly related to conifers. In fact, it is a tree, but most of its trunk is underground, the roots reaching for water 20 metres or more below the desert surface. The black stem above the ground is only 1-1.5 metres high, but more than one metre broad, and flat as a plate. Each plant produces only two large leaves, but they continue growing throughout the life span of the plant, which may be as much as 2,000 years. The long leaves are torn and tattered by the fierce desert winds, giving the impression that there are many more than two leaves. The small flowers are situated between the leaves and the stem, emitting a foul smell that will attract flies, which pollinate the flowers.
A strange species of lichen, Xanthomaculina convoluta, is found in this desert. It is not attached to stones or trees as most other lichens, instead being blown about by the wind, getting nourishments from organic debris and from micro-organisms in the air.
The Namib Desert contains huge deposits of diamonds, especially around the coastal town of Lüderitz. Tourists are not allowed to enter the diamond areas, and numerous signs along the road inform you that trespassers will be fined. In their heyday, many inhabitants of the former diamond towns were immensely rich, spending some of their wealth to construct glorious mansions. Today, most of these towns are deserted and have become ghost towns, some of which are open to the public. It is indeed an eerie feeling to enter the empty houses, half full of sand, doors creaking on rusted hinges.
Welwitschia mirabilis is the sole surviving representative of an ancient family of cone-bearing plants. Its small flowers are situated between the stem and the two huge leaves, and the fruits, which resemble small cones, are much visited by various species of bugs, seen in the bottom picture. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
In the Namib Desert, this species of lichen, Xanthomaculina convoluta, is not attached to stones or trees as most other lichens. Instead, it is blown about by the wind, getting nourishments from debris and from micro-organisms in the air. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The dollarbush (Zygophyllum stapfii) is common in the Namib Desert. It is aptly named, as its leaves resemble small coins. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Tourists are not allowed to enter the diamond areas, as you are informed by numerous signs – sometimes consisting of an empty oil drum. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Ghost town near Lüderitz. It is an eerie feeling to enter houses, half full of sand, their doors creaking on rusted hinges. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Besides diamonds, many types of semi-precious stones are found in Namibia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Rocks and quiver trees
Further east in Namibia, precipitation is higher, up to 350 mm annually. This is the farmland area of the country, home to the majority of the population. Much of this land is very hilly, covered in scrub forest. In this habitat lives the rare Hartmann’s mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae), which was almost hunted to extinction by the Boers, but is now strictly protected. Other mammals in this area include the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and the Damara ground squirrel (Geosciurus princeps).
Rocks abound here, often showing fantastic shapes and amazing colours. A large area of rocks, some of which are balancing on top of other rocks, is found near the town of Keetmanshoop. These weird formations are called ‘The Devil’s Playground’. The strange kokerboom tree (Aloë dichotoma) is often found in rocky areas. This tree is one of the largest members of the lily family, growing to a height of about 9 metres. The word kokerboom is Afrikaans, meaning ’quiver tree’. Boer settlers noticed that the San people used the bark of this tree to make quivers for their hunting arrows.
In the southern part of the country is Fish River Canyon, the deepest canyon in the world, popularly called ‘Africa’s Grand Canyon’. It is slightly deeper than its American cousin, but not as wide, and, therefore, not as impressive.
Namibia is the only place in the world, where the rare Hartmann’s mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae) is found. This picture is from Daan Viljoen National Park. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Animal life is quite rich in the eastern hills of Namibia. This picture shows a male Namibian rock agama (Agama planiceps), basking on a rocky outcrop. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) is widespread and common in Africa. It often becomes remarkably tame, as this one, grazing in a camp ground in Daan Viljoen National Park. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
My companion Hans Lomosse, exploring peculiar rock formations, named ‘The Devil’s Playground’. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The kokerboom (Aloë dichotoma) is a huge species of aloe, its name meaning ’quiver tree’ in Afrikaans. Dutch settlers noticed that the San people used the bark of this tree to make quivers for their arrows. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Spitzkoppe (’Pointed Heads’ in Afrikaans) is another area, dominated by rocks. This rock has been eroded into thin flakes, somewhat resembling the layers of an onion, by alternating temperatures, rain, and wind. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The aptly named bottle tree (Pachypodium lealii) thrives among the dry rocks of Spitzkoppe. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The Hoba Meteorite, near Grootfontein, fell to the Earth about 80,000 years ago. This huge meteorite has a length of 3 metres, weighing about 50 tonnes. It contains mainly ataxite, consisting of 82% iron and 16% nickel. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The Kalahari Desert
Along the borders with Botswana and South Africa, the western part of the huge Kalahari Desert enters Namibia. When Dutch immigrants arrived in South Africa in the 18th century, they noticed a species of antelope, which would often jump about, obviously for sheer pleasure. For this reason, they named it springbok (’jumping buck’). Its scientific name is Antidorcas hofmeyri. Many springbok and gemsbok (Oryx gazella) live in the river valleys of the Kalahari, occasionally falling prey to carnivores like the lion (Panthera leo) and the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).
Until recently, bands of San people were roaming this desert as hunter-gatherers, collecting roots of wild plants and hunting game such as springbok, oryx, and southern giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa). Today, most of the Kalahari has been made a national park, and the San people have been forced to settle in villages.
A small species of mongoose, the suricate (Suricata suricatta), lives in family groups in the Kalahari Desert. One member of the flock is always standing on its hind legs, keeping a lookout for enemies, such as eagles, kites, or jackals, while the rest of the group is searching for food like beetles, lizards, scorpions, and other small animals. Spotting an enemy, the sentry emits a shrill call, causing all members of the flock to rush for shelter. Other common species among the smaller mammals are yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) and Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris).
When the Boers arrived in South Africa in the 18th century, they noticed a species of antelope, which would often jump about, obviously for sheer pleasure. For this reason, they named it springbok (’jumping buck’) (top). This male springbok (Antidorcas hofmeyri) is about to quench his thirst at a waterhole, together with numerous ring-necked doves (Streptopelia capicola) (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
After drinking at a waterhole in Kalahari National Park, this gemsbok (Oryx gazella) is blowing water through its nostrils. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
This cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has dragged its prey, a springbok, into the shade of an acacia tree. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The suricate (Suricata suricatta) lives in family groups. A member of the flock is always standing on its hind legs, keeping a lookout for enemies like eagles, kites, or jackals. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) is another common mongoose in the Kalahari Desert. These two are grooming one another. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) outside their den (top). While feeding, this squirrel is using its tail as an ‘umbrella’, giving protection from the fierce heat (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Etosha National Park
An even richer wildlife is found in Etosha National Park, northern Namibia, which was established as a game reserve in 1907 by the German government, situated around a large salt-lake, Etosha Pan. This park is enormous, covering an area of 22,270 square kilometres. A multitude of animals roam the grassland and the scrub forest around this pan, such as springbok, lion, elephant (Loxodonta africana), Namib zebra (Equus quagga antiquorum), blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), and greater kudu (Strepsiceros zambeziensis). The Namib zebra is the palest of the seven subspecies of the plains zebra. After the extermination of the quagga (E. q. quagga) in the late 1800s, the Namib zebra is also one of the least striped surviving subspecies. Male kudus have impressive spiralled horns, and for this reason they have been much persecuted by trophy hunters.
Birdlife is abundant in Etosha. Southern ostriches (Struthio camelus australis) race across the dried-out salt pan, and white-quilled bustard (Afrotis afraoides) males strut about, emitting peculiar calls, amplified by the large air sack on their neck. African pygmy-falcons (Polihierax semitorquatus) are perched in acacia trees, scanning the surroundings for prey, while Rüppell’s parrots (Poicephalus rueppellii) call raucously from other trees. Etosha is home to a small population of 60-80 blue cranes (Anthropoides paradisea), hundreds of kilometres away from their normal range in South Africa. Incidentally, this small, bluish-grey crane is the national bird of South Africa.
On the campsites in Etosha National Park, various birds have become remarkably confiding, searching the ground – and sometimes tables – for titbits, among these the red-shouldered glossy-starling (Lamprotornis nitens) and the southern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus leucomelas).
Elephants (Loxodonta africana), quenching their thirst at a waterhole in Etosha National Park. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Grazing Namib zebras (Equus quagga antiquorum), illuminated by the evening sun, with black rain clouds looming on the horizon (top). Zebra mares are loving mothers (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The greater kudu (Tragelaphus zambeziensis) is a large antelope with impressive, spiralled horns. It has a wide distribution, from the Sudan to southern Africa. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
A male white-quilled bustard (Afrotis afraoides) struts about, emitting peculiar calls, amplified by the large air sack on his neck. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Etosha is home to a small population of about 80 blue cranes (Anthropoides paradisea), hundreds of kilometres away from their normal range in South Africa. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
This red-shouldered glossy-starling (Lamprotornis nitens) is searching a camp table for titbits. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
The southern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus leucomelas) has also become very confiding around campsites in Etosha. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)
Anthony Bannister & Peter Johnson, 1978: Namibia – Africa’s harsh paradise. C. Struik Publishers, Cape Town
(Uploaded February 2016)
(Revised November 2017)