Monkeys and apes

 

 

”We are monkeys with money and guns.”

 

– Tom Waits (born 1949), American singer, musician, composer, songwriter, and actor

 

 

Monkeys are our nearest relatives – in fact, scientifically speaking, we are a species of ape, so it is quite true, what Tom Waits says.

Before dealing in depth with various groups of (other) monkeys, a selection of photographs, showing their diversity, is shown. The most important source used below is the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (iucnredlist.org).

 

 

Malaysia 1984-85
These young orphaned orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Borneo, love to be driven in a wheelbarrow into the rainforest, where they learn to climb trees. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Cambodia 2010
Young long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), hanging upside down in a branch, before letting go and dropping headlong into a pond below. – Angkor Thom, Cambodia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Varanasi 2008
Young rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), gnawing on a discarded banana peel, Ganges River, Varanasi, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Asien 1977-78
Two southern plains langurs (Semnopithecus dussumieri), outlined against the light, Ranthambhor National Park, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tanzania 1989
Olive baboons (Papio anubis), resting in an African palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum), Tarangire National Park, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nepal 1991
Nepal 1991
One day, when I had visited the great Buddhist stupa Swayambhunath in Kathmandu, Nepal, I was descending the staircase, when I heard a strange sound behind me. Turning around, I saw an empty Tuborg beer can come tumbling down the stairs, pass me, and come to a stop just in front of a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The monkey grabbed the can, sniffed it, and then quickly dropped it, baring its teeth as if to say, “This stuff is not for me!” (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Costa Rica
White-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus), resting on a branch, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tanzania 1993
The Zanzibar red colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii) is only found on the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bali 2015
Female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), dozing on a wall in the Wenara Wana Temple (popularly called ‘Monkey Forest’), Ubud, Bali, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1985-86
Young southern plains langurs (Semnopithecus dussumieri) pseudo-mating, Sariska National Park, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tanzania 1989
Male olive baboon (Papio anubis), basking in the sand on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 2003
Nepal 1987
In India and Nepal, monkeys often cross heavily trafficked roads by balancing on electric wires or hanging upside down. These pictures show a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) in the town of Badami, Karnataka, India (top), and a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) in Kathmandu, Nepal. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Guatemala 1998
This Yucatan spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi ssp. yucatanensis) in Tikal National Park, Guatemala, is using its prehensile tail as a fifth limb. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydindien 2008
Male lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), scratching his head, Puthutottam Forest, Tamil Nadu, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydspanien 2005
A young Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living on the Rock of Gibraltar, southern Spain, seems to ask his friend, “Have you found something interesting?” (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Kina 1987
This orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in Chengdu Zoo, Sichuan Province, China, is trying to get something outside its cage. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Tanzania 1989
This male olive baboon (Papio anubis) is watching a pack of feeding banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. These little carnivores are quite fierce, and the baboon made no attempt to steal their food, which he was clearly interested in. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydasien 1982-83
Young rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), riding on its mother’s back, Swayambhunath, Kathmandu, Nepal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Langurs
Langurs are a huge group of Old World leaf monkeys, comprising 8 genera within the family Cercopithecidae. On this page, I only deal with two genera, Semnopithecus (true langurs) and Trachypithecus (lutungs). Some authorities maintain that all langurs on the Indian Subcontinent belong to the genus Semnopithecus, while others regard two species, the Nilgiri langur of southwestern India, and the purple-faced langur of Sri Lanka, as members of the otherwise Southeast Asian genus Trachypithecus. I tend to agree with the former, especially because Nilgiri langur is able to produce fertile offspring with two grey langur species, the southern plains langur (S. dussumieri) and the black-footed langur (S. hypoleucos).

The generic name Semnopithecus is from the Greek, semnos = sacred, and pithekos = monkey, alluding to the fact that monkeys are sacred to Hindus. (See chapter Hanuman, the monkey god further down on this page.) Trachy is from the Greek, trach = rough, alluding to the dense fur of some species of Trachypithecus.

In the past, all grey langurs on the Indian Subcontinent were regarded as belonging to a single species, Semnopithecus entellus, which was divided into six subspecies. However, recent morphological studies, combined with DNA-analyses, have revealed that the grey langurs should be regarded as seven full species: northern plains langur (S. entellus), southern plains langur (S. dussumieri), terai langur (S. hector), Nepal langur (S. schistaceus), Kashmir langur (S. ajax), black-footed langur (S. hypoleucos), and tufted langur (S. priam).

 

 

The northern plains langur (Semnopithecus entellus) occurs in eastern and north-eastern India, from Andhra Pradesh north to West Bengal, with a small population in western Bangladesh, which probably originated from a single pair, introduced by Hindu pilgrims on the bank of the Jalangi River. This species is quite common, but locally threatened by habitat loss due to intensified agriculture and fires, and by hunting for food by newly settled people in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

 

Sydindien 1997-98
Troop of northern plains langurs (Semnopithecus entellus), resting on a rock outside the sacred Udayagiri Caves, near Bhubaneswar, Odisha (Orissa). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 1997-98
Female northern plains langur with a tiny young, Udayagiri Caves, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (Orissa). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The southern plains langur (Semnopithecus dussumieri) is widespread in north-western, central, and south-central India, from Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh south to Telangana and northern Karnataka and Kerala, living in a variety of habitats, such as forests, scrubland, temple groves, gardens, and towns, up to an altitude of c. 1,700 m.

 

Nordindien 1982
Nordindien 1985-86
Members of a troop of southern plains langurs (Semnopithecus dussumieri), drinking from a waterhole in Sariska National Park, Rajasthan. – A Hindu legend relates that a man named Narad Muni went to a Swayamwara, during which young girls can choose a husband. He was of the opinion that he was the most handsome among the young men, but went away heartbroken, because none of the young girls chose him. On his way home, he wanted to quench his thirst in a waterhole, and his reflection in the water told him that he had got a monkey’s head. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The terai langur (Semnopithecus hector) is found in the Himalayan foothills, up to an altitude of c. 1,600 metres, from Uttarakhand east to southwestern Bhutan. It mainly lives in forests, occasionally feeding in orchards and fields with crops. Its fur is thicker than that of the northern and southern plains langurs, but not as rich as that of the Nepal langur (S. schistaceus, see below). The total number of terai langurs is probably only about 10,000 mature individuals, and the population is slowly declining, mainly due to habitat loss.

 

Uttarakhand 2008
Uttarakhand 2008
On an excursion with an Indian friend, Ajai Saxena, to the area around Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, we had company of a couple of terai langurs (Semnopithecus hector), which took their seat on the roof of our car. Presumably, many car drivers feed these monkeys, but as we oppose the habit of feeding wild animals, we didn’t give them anything, and shortly after they disappeared, jumping into the trees. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Nepal, or pale-armed, langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) has a wide distribution at mid-elevations in the Himalaya, between 1,500 and 3,500 metres (occasionally to 4,000 m), from Pakistan through India and Nepal to Bhutan and extreme south-eastern Tibet. It mainly lives in lush monsoon forests, occasionally found in scrubland and agricultural areas. This species is quite common, and the population is fairly stable. Threats include habitat loss through e.g. logging, fire, and human encroachment, and it is hunted in Tibet for usage in traditional medicine.

 

Uttarakhand 2008
The Nepal langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) is easily identified by its luxurious, pale grey fur and the large white ruff around its jet-black face. – Dodi Tal, Uttarakhand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Uttarakhand 2008
This Nepal langur is eating buds and flowers of Viburnum grandiflorum, Dodi Tal, Uttarakhand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nepal 2008
Troop of Nepal langurs, eating soil to obtain minerals, Banthanti, Annapurna, Nepal. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The black-footed langur (Semnopithecus hypoleucos) occurs in the West Ghats of south-western India, from Goa south through Karnataka to Kerala. In some areas, it is seriously threatened by hunting, and it has already been extirpated from parts of the Brahmagiri Hills in Kodagu District, Karnataka. Some authorities believe that the black-footed langur is a natural hybrid between the southern plains langur and the Nilgiri langur (S. johnii, see below), others regard it as a subspecies of the former.

 

Sydindien 2008
As its name implies, the black-footed langur (Semnopithecus hypoleucos) has jet-black hands and feet, contrasting sharply with its grey arms and legs. This one in Anshi National Park, Karnataka, is busy scratching itself. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 2008
Sydindien 2008
This black-footed langur is climbing up a dead bamboo stem, from which it jumps onto another one, Anshi National Park, Karnataka. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 2008
Black-footed langur, eating flower buds of a silk-cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), Honnavar Forest, Karnataka. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Two subspecies of the tufted langur (Semnopithecus priam) are recognized, S. p. priam of South India, and S. p. thersites of Sri Lanka and parts of South India. Some research indicates that there are consistent differences between the two taxa, and maybe they will be split into two separate species in the future. S. p. priam occurs in disjunct populations from south of the Krishna River, Andhra Pradesh, south to the city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu. S. p. thersites is distributed in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and in parts of the West Ghats in India. The affinity of some South Indian populations is not known, as they have been very poorly researched. The tufted langur lives in forests, temple groves, gardens, and cultivated areas, in India up to c. 1,200 metres altitude, and in Sri Lanka up to c. 500 m.

 

Sydindien 2008
Indian tufted langur (Semnopithecus priam ssp. priam), running full speed along a road, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydasien 1978-79
Sri Lanka tufted langur (Semnopithecus priam ssp. thersites), Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydasien 1978-79
The Sri Lanka tufted langur is quite common around Buddhist temples, here at Anuradhapura. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Nilgiri langur (Semnopithecus johnii) is restricted to the West Ghats of south-western India, in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, where it lives in forests, between 300 and 2,000 metres altitude. Formerly, it was threatened by habitat loss due to mining, dams, and human settlement, and by hunting, but the latter has decreased in recent years due to better protection, and after the introduction of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act in 1972, the population has increased. Since the 1990s, it has been relatively stable, counting around 20,000 individuals. Some authorities maintain that the Nilgiri langur belongs to the genus Trachypithecus – a genus, which is mainly found in Southeast Asia (see below).

 

Sydindien 1997-98
The Nilgiri langur (Semnopithecus johnii) is jet-black, with pale-brown fur on the crown and on the ruff around its face. – Eravikulam National Park, Kerala. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 1997-98
A troop of Nilgiri langurs gathered in a tree, eating leaf buds, Periyar National Park, Kerala. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Four subspecies of the purple-faced langur (Semnopithecus vetulus) are recognized, all restricted to Sri Lanka. S. v. vetulus lives in an area of less than 5,000 km2 of rainforest in south-western Sri Lanka, up to an altitude of c. 1,000 metres. Where its natural habitat has been destroyed, it may live in gardens and plantations, but these habitats offer no long-term survival prospects for this subspecies. S. v. nestor lives in a similar habitat, further north than S. v. vetulus, while S. v. philbricki is found in moister forests of the dry zone. S. v. monticola is restricted to the mountain forests of central Sri Lanka, between 1,000 and 2,200 metres altitude. All four subspecies are endangered, as they are believed to have undergone a decline of more than 50% in the last 40 years due to habitat loss and hunting. Some authorities maintain that the purple-faced langur belongs to the genus Trachypithecus (see below).

 

Sydasien 1978-79
Portrait of a captive purple-faced langur, either Semnopithecus vetulus ssp. vetulus or S. v. nestor. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydasien 1978-79
The dry-zone subspecies of the purple-faced langur, S. v. philbricki, is found in forests of moister areas of the dry zone of Sri Lanka. This picture is from Polonnaruwa. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Trachypithecus is a genus of 13 to 15 species of leaf monkey, depending on authority. These langurs, also often called lutungs, are found from Bhutan and north-eastern India east to southernmost parts of China, and thence south through Southeast Asia to Java and Bali.

 

 

The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) occurs only in Bhutan and adjacent parts of Assam, north-eastern India, living in forests along the foothills of the Himalaya, up to about 3,000 metres altitude, between the rivers Manas in the east and Sankosh in the west. The total known range of this species in both India and Bhutan is less than 30,000 km2, and much of it is not suitable habitat. The estimated population is less than 1,200 individuals in India and around 4,000 in Bhutan. It has declined by more than 30% in the last 30 years and is expected to decline further due to habitat loss. The population in India is highly fragmented, with the southern population completely separated from the northern population due to the effects of human activities.

The golden langur was described as late as 1956, but was known much earlier by naturalists, the earliest record being by R. B. Pemberton in a paper from 1838, Report on Bootan Indian Studies Past and Present. However, his work was lost and not rediscovered until the 1970s, and the golden langur was not mentioned again until 1907, when E. O. Shebbeare reported seeing a ’cream-coloured langur’ in the vicinity of Jamduar. In 1919, a publication stated that a pale yellow-coloured langur was common in a district near Goalpara in Assam. In 1947, C. G. Baron wrote: I saw some white monkeys (…) and, as far as I know, they are an undescribed species. Their entire body and tail are of the same colour – pale silver-golden, not unlike a blonde.” A number of other sightings roused the interest of celebrated naturalist Edward Pritchard Gee (1904-1968), who observed and photographed three troops of golden langurs in 1953. He reported his results to the Zoological Survey of India, and in 1955 six specimens were collected. The species was described by Dr. H. Khajuria, who named it Presbystis gee, in honour of Mr. Gee. (Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gee%27s_golden_langur)

 

Sydasien 1980
Golden langurs (Trachypithecus geei), Manas National Park, Assam. The population in this park is threatened by hybridisation with a close relative, the capped langur (T. pileatus). The populations of these two species used to be separated by rivers, but a number of constructed bridges has now made it easy for them to cross these rivers. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Javan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus) is endemic to Indonesia, where it occurs on Java, Bali and Lombok, and some smaller nearby islands. It lives in mangrove and forests, up to an altitude of 3,500 metres. This species is threatened by habitat loss due to expanding agriculture and human settlements, and by hunting for food. Many are also captured for the pet trade.

 

Indonesien 1985
This Javan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus) is for sale at a market in the city of Yogyakarta, Java. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Capuchin monkeys
Capuchin monkeys are a group of 10 species of New World monkeys, belonging to either one genus, Cebus, or to two genera, Cebus and Sapajus, depending on authority. They are distributed from Honduras south to northern Argentina. The word capuchin derives from a group of Franciscan friars, named the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, which arose in 1520, when Italian friar Matteo da Bascio claimed that God had informed him that the manner of life led by his contemporary friars was not the one, which St. Francis of Assisi had dictated. The friars of this order wear brown robes with pointed hoods, called capuche. When the conquistadors reached Central America late in the 15th Century, they noticed some small monkeys, whose colouring resembled these friars, so they named them capuchins. (Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capuchin_monkey)

 

 

The white-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus) is native to forests of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and coastal Columbia and Ecuador. In the West, this species is one of the best known of all monkeys, as it was often the faithful companion of the organ grinder, who would walk from town to town, playing his organ, while his monkey would perform a dance. It is quite common in the wild, often being confiding.

 

Costa Rica
Costa Rica-2
Costa Rica
Three pictures of the white-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica. The prehensile tail is used as a fifth limb, when the monkey is feeding. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Colobus monkeys
Colobus monkeys are a group of African leaf monkeys, which are also called thumbless monkeys, as their thumb is reduced to a stump. The word colobus is from the Greek, kolobós, meaning ‘docked’. These monkeys are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 5 species in the genus Colobus, called black-and-white colobus, 10 species in the genus Piliocolobus, called red colobus, and one species in the genus Procolobus, the olive colobus (P. verus). Most species are restricted to forests, the Zanzibar red colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii) occasionally also found in scrubland and plantations.

 

 

The eastern black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), comprising 8 subspecies, is also known as the mantled guereza, a name alluding to the long fringes of white hair along each side. The tail also has a large white tuft. This species is widespread in Africa, found from Cameroun east across southern Chad, Central African Republic, and northern Zaire to Uganda, Kenya, northern Tanzania, and Ethiopia. In parts of its range, it is threatened by habitat loss due to lumbering, establishment of plantations, and conversion to agricultural land. Hunting is rampant in some areas of the western part of its range.

 

Tanzania 1990
In 1988, during a stay in Arusha National Park, Tanzania, my companion Thomas Bregnballe and I were camping on a beautiful spot at the foot of Mount Meru, beneath a couple of huge trees, enveloped by strangler figs. On our first night here, we were a little alarmed by an unbelievably powerful noise, coming from these trees, sounding like a mixture of some gigantic croaking frog, and a car engine that won’t start. As it turned out, the source of this sound was a troop of Kilimanjaro black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza ssp. caudatus), using these trees as night roost. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Zanzibar red colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii) is restricted to the island of Unguja, the main island of Zanzibar, off the coast of Tanzania. The total population is estimated at less than 2,000 individuals, and it is still decreasing due to habitat destruction, caused by timber felling, charcoal production, clearance for cultivation, and fires. Conservationists are working with the local government to devise an effective strategy to protect this species and its habitat.

 

Tanzania 1993
Tanzania 1993
Zanzibar red colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii), feeding on leaves of beach almond (Terminalia catappa), Zanzibar. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Macaques
Macaca is a genus of Old World monkeys, presently comprising 23 species. Recently, two new species have been described, the Arunachal macaque (M. munzala) in north-eastern India in 2004, and the white-cheeked macaque (M. leucogenys) in south-eastern Tibet in 2015. Macaca is from makaku, plural of kaku, a West African Bantu name for a species of mangabey. In Portuguese, makaku became macaco, and in French macaque, the latter adopted by the British. In 1798, French taxonomist Bernard Germain de Lacépède (1756-1825) applied this word of African origin, in the form Macaca, to an almost exclusively Asian group of monkeys, presumably because he was familiar with the Barbary macaque (M. sylvanus) – the only species of the group outside Asia, living on the Rock of Gibraltar and in North Africa. (Source: itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/003458.html)

 

 

Of the 23 species of macaque, the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is the most widespread, found from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, south to the Malaysian and Indonesian Archipelago, and thence east to the Philippines. This species, which is also called crab-eating macaque, lives in a wide range of habitats, including mangrove, forests, agricultural areas near forest, and temple groves. It is found at elevations up to 1,800 m in the Philippines, up to 1,000 m in Indonesia, and up to 700 m in Thailand, while in Cambodia and Vietnam it generally occurs below 300 m. In the Philippines, some populations are threatened by hunting.

Its specific name, fascicularis, is rather puzzling. It is not known, why Sir Thomas Raffles (1781-1826), Lieutenant-Governor of British Java 1811-1815, and Governor-General of Bencoolen (on Sumatra) 1817-1822, applied this epithet, meaning ‘with a small band or stripe’, to this species, as it has no stripes.

The following 13 pictures are all from the area around the Wenara Wana Temple (popularly called ‘Monkey Forest’), Ubud, Bali, Indonesia, which is home to several troops of these monkeys.

 

Bali 2015
King of the Monkey Forest. – Resting on a wall, this large male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is scratching his tail. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
Bali 2015
Female long-tailed macaques are loving mothers. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
Bali 2009
Female, grooming a male – whereupon he mounts her. She seems to dislike it. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
This young monkey is stuffing itself with bananas. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
Female, grooming another female. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
Young, playing. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
Macaques start climbing at a very young age. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2015
Most macaque species love swimming. This long-tailed macaque seems to tell me, “This is nice! You should try!” (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2015
Young long-tailed macaque, sitting on a sculpture, depicting – a long-tailed macaque. Pictures of other sculptures, depicting this species, are found elsewhere on this website, see Culture: Folk art around the world. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2015
Bali 2009
The long-tailed macaques in the Monkey Forest are indeed used to tourists. The sculpture in the background in the upper picture depicts Varaha, one of the supreme Hindu god Vishnu’s avatars (incarnations), a gigantic boar, who kills the terrible demon Hiranyaksha. – Read more about Vishnu and other Hindu gods on this website, see Religion: Hinduism. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is the well-known brown monkey of India, called bandar, which is found almost everywhere in the country north of the Tapti and Godavari Rivers. Its total area of distribution is from Afghanistan east through Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam, and thence north to central China. It has also become well-known through its usage in medical research, which detected the rhesus factor, an inherited antigen in the blood of humans. Its fur is mainly brown, with an orange tinge on the hind parts, and the tail is rather short, 20-30 cm. The habitats of this species vary from semi-desert via various forest types to temple groves and cities, from the lowland up to c. 2,500 metres altitude.

Following a strong decline due to felling of forest, combined with export of many animals for medical research, the rhesus monkey is now expanding in India, with an estimated population of 500,000 individuals, or more. This expansion is mainly due to the fact that it has adapted to a life in cities. The size of a territory of a typical troop of rhesus monkeys has been measured at up to 16 km2 in montane forest, and 1-3 km2 in other types of forest, while in Kolkata, a troop of 62 individuals was studied, thriving successfully in an area of less than 4 hectares, in the centre of this metropolis. In some areas, especially in Laos and Vietnam, the species is hunted for food, and habitat destruction has also affected populations locally in Southeast Asia.

 

Nepal 1987
Nepal 1991
Myanmar 2007
Female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are affectionate mothers. The upper two pictures are from the Swayambhunath Buddhist stupa in Kathmandu, Nepal, where several troops of these monkeys live, while the lower picture is from the Buddhist temple atop Mount Popa, Myanmar, which is also home to a troop of rhesus monkeys. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydasien 1978-79
Female rhesus monkeys, enjoying the evening sun, Sariska National Park, Rajasthan, India. The one in front is suckling a young. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Myanmar 2007
Young rhesus monkey, eating acacia leaves, near the Buddhist temple on Mount Popa, Myanmar. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Varanasi 2008
Nordindien 1991
Varanasi 2008
Varanasi 2008
In India, the rhesus monkey has adapted to a life in cities. These pictures show mother and young on a wall near the Ganges River, Varanasi (top). Rhesus monkey, walking on a wall, surrounding the Hawa Mahal Palace, Jaipur, Rajasthan (second from above). Rhesus monkey, jumping from one wall to another, Varanasi (second from below). Clinging to a clothes-line, this rhesus monkey is looking through a window in Varanasi (bottom). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) is unique among macaques, as both males and females have a huge greyish mane around the head, which has given this monkey its German name, Bartaffe (‘bearded monkey’). Otherwise, its fur is jet-black. Another characteristic is the tuft at the end of its tail, which has given it the English name. This species is endemic to rainforests of the West Ghats, south-western India, in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Although the lion-tailed macaque has a relatively wide range, its area of occupancy is small, being severely fragmented through establishment of plantations (tea, coffee, cardamom, and eucalyptus) and agricultural areas. The total population is estimated at less than 4,000 individuals, made up of 47 isolated sub-populations. In one location, the Kodagu District, Karnataka, the species is highly threatened by hunting for food. In later years, the population seems to have become stabilized due to better protection measures.

 

Sydindien 2008
In the Puthutottam Forest, Tamil Nadu, a troop of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) have become accustomed to people, as they are often being fed by tourists. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 2008
This male is baring his huge canines, but he was probably just yawning, as this species is not at all aggressive. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 2008
This lion-tailed macaque is lying on the road, eating tiny pebbles, which are crunching between its teeth! (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the only surviving primate in Africa north of the Sahara Desert. In former times, it was widely distributed in south-western Europe and in north-western Africa, east to Libya. Today, it is restricted to small relict populations in Morocco and Algeria. There is also a small population on the Rock of Gibraltar, southern Spain, which may, in part, be a remnant of the former European population. Historical sources, however, mention repeated release of African animals on the rock. In his work from about 1610, Historia de la Muy Noble y Más Leal Ciudad de Gibraltar (’History of the Very Noble and Most Loyal City of Gibraltar’), Alonso Hernández del Portillo writes, “But now let us speak of other and living producers, which in spite of the asperity of the rock still maintain themselves in the mountain; there are monkeys, who may be called the true owners, with possession from time immemorial, always tenacious of the dominion, living for the most part on the eastern side in high and inaccessible chasms.” (Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_macaques_in_Gibraltar)

The Barbary macaque occurs from sea level to c. 2,600 metres altitude, being most common above 1,000 m. It prefers cedar forests, but is also found in oak forests, coastal scrub, and overgrazed rocky slopes with sparse vegetation. Recently, the Moroccan population was estimated to be 6,000-10,000 individuals, whereas in 1975 it was about 17,000. In Algeria, around 1980, the population was estimated at 5,500, while the present number is unknown. About 300 animals live on Gibraltar. The total population may have declined by more than 50% since 1980, and the decline is expected to continue. All areas occupied by the Barbary macaque are under growing pressure from human activities.

 

Sydspanien 2005
Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), sleeping on a wall atop the Gibraltar Rock, southern Spain. This rock is home to a population of about 300 of these monkeys, divided into five troops. This species is very characteristic, as it has no tail. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydspanien 2005
Female Barbary macaque with young, Gibraltar. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydspanien 2005
Tourists used to feed the macaques on Gibraltar, but today this activity is strictly forbidden. However, the monkeys are still very tame, as this young one, pulling a boy’s ear. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) is limited to the southern half of India, replacing the rhesus monkey south of the rivers Tapti in Gujarat and Godavari in Maharashtra. It is a little smaller than the rhesus monkey, its fur being greyish-brown, paler on the belly. It has an extremely long tail, longer than the body. On its crown is a cowlick, resembling a bonnet. This species is very common, locally abundant, living in all forest types, scrubland, plantations, agricultural lands, and urban areas. It is usually found below 2,000 metres altitude, occasionally up to 2,600 m. As it often feeds in agricultural areas, conflicts with humans is an increasing problem. It is locally hunted, and many are caught for research, as well as for street performers (see further down on this page, Monkeys and culture).

 

Sydindien 1997-98
Male bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), resting in a growth of bamboo, Periyar National Park, Kerala. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indien 2003
Indien 2003
A large troop of bonnet macaques live around the famous Hindu cave temples in the city of Badami, Karnataka, where they mainly feed on offerings of rice and other edibles, brought by devout Hindus. These pictures show females and a young, huddling together for warmth (above), and a young, enjoying the evening sun. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydasien 1978-79
Like most other macaques, bonnet macaques love bathing, as these young ones in the Theppakadu River, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 2008
Along many roads and around temples, bonnet macaques are very confiding. This one is watching its own reflection in a car window, Azhiyar Ghat, Tamil Nadu. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Pig-tailed macaques are named after their short tail, which is often curved, resembling the curl on a pig’s tail. Formerly, all pig-tailed macaques were regarded as a single species, Macaca nemestrina, but have now been split into two species, the southern, Macaca nemestrina, which is found on the Malacca Peninsula, and on Sumatra and Borneo, and the northern, Macaca leonina, which lives in Southeast Asia, from eastern Bangladesh south to the northern tip of the Malacca Peninsula, where its distribution overlaps with that of the southern species. Why they have been split, is a bit of a mystery to me, as they interbreed in the overlapping area.

The southern, or Sunda, pig-tailed macaque is common in some places, but generally its numbers have decreased significantly due to habitat loss through establishment of oil palm plantations and agricultural areas, as well as to logging. It is frequently shot as a crop pest.

 

Sydøstasien 1975
Minangkabau tribal with a southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), which has been trained to bring coconuts down from the trees. – Maninjau, Sumatra, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

As its name implies, the Taiwan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is endemic to Taiwan, where it is quite common. This species is mostly found in various primary forest types, but is also living in secondary forest, from where it enters agricultural areas, and even towns, for food. It is quite a nuisance in some areas, but is not harmed, partly because it is protected by law, partly because of the widespread Buddhist conception that you should not kill animals. It occurs from sea level to c. 3,600 metres altitude, but is most common between 1,000 and 1,500 m. There are no major threats to the species.

 

Taiwan 2009
The fur of the Taiwan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is pale grey with a brownish tinge here and there. This large male is resting on a rock along a trail in the Bagua Shan Mountains. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2009
This female is grooming its young, Bagua Shan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Taiwan 2014b
Like several other macaque species, the Taiwan macaque has adapted to a life near humans. This male is sitting on a house roof near a trafficked road, waiting for bypassing car drivers to feed him. – Linbei Chukou, near Linnei. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The toque macaque (Macaca sinica) is a reddish-brown monkey, resembling the Indian bonnet macaque (M. radiata), but the cowlick is further forward on its crown. This species is restricted to Sri Lanka, where three subspecies are recognized: M. s. sinica in the dry zone of the eastern and northern parts of the island, M. s. aurifrons in the south-western lowland rainforest zone, and M. s. opisthomelas in the central highland wet zone. The toque macaque as a whole is found in a variety of forest types, from sea level up to about 2,100 m. The distribution of all subspecies is very fragmented, and M. s. opisthomelas is restricted to an area of less than 500 km2, with only a fifth of this area actually occupied by the animals. The chief threat to this species is habitat loss due to establishment of plantations and agricultural lands. Many are shot, as they are doing considerable damage to crops. It is still widely distributed, but the population may have declined by more than 50% since 1975.

 

Sri Lanka 1974-75
The dry-zone race of the toque macaque (Macaca sinica ssp. sinica) is found in the eastern and northern parts of Sri Lanka. This one was photographed at Polonnaruwa. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sri Lanka 2015
M. s. aurifrons is distributed in the south-western lowland rainforest zone. This one was observed in Sinharaja Forest Reserve. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydasien 1978-79
Young toque macaque at Polonnaruwa, drinking by dipping its hand into a puddle inside a hollow tree trunk, afterwards licking its hand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Howler monkeys
Howler monkeys (Alouatta) are a group of 15 species of the family Atelidae, distributed from south-eastern Mexico south to northern Argentina. They live in various types of forest, including mangrove and swamp forest. Threats to these monkeys include habitat destruction and human predation for food, for the pet industry, and for zoos. Howler monkeys are famous for their loud call, which can be heard almost 5 kilometres away. They have an enlarged hyoid bone, which enables them to produce this incredibly loud noise. The main function of the howling is probably to guard the territory of the troop.

 

 

The golden-mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata ssp. palliata), ranging from extreme eastern Guatemala east to eastern Costa Rica, or possibly extreme western Panama, is a subspecies of the widespread mantled howler monkey, which is found from south-eastern Mexico south to northern Peru, comprising 5 subspecies. The golden-mantled howler monkey is quite dark, with a rufous mantle. It mainly lives in the lowland, occasionally found up to 2,000 metres altitude.

 

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Golden-mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata ssp. palliata), feeding in a tree near Bagaces, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. In the centre picture, a tiny young is clinging to its mother’s tail, while the slightly larger young in the bottom picture already shows great agility. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Guenons, vervets, and patas monkey
Guenons, vervets, and the patas monkey are all long-tailed African monkeys, belonging to the family Cercopithecidae.

The guenons, genus Cercopithecus, is a large group, comprising c. 25 species, distributed in most of sub-Saharan Africa. They live in evergreen forests, sometimes in secondary forest and scrubland, mainly in the canopy, occasionally coming to the ground. They are dependent on daily access to water.

The genus Chlorocebus was formerly included in Cercopithecus, comprising a single species, the green vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops), which was divided into 6 subspecies. Today, these subspecies are generally regarded as full species, the vervet (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), the grivet (C. aethiops), the green monkey (C. sabaeus), the tantalus monkey (C. tantalus), the Bale Mountains vervet (C. djamdjamensis), and the malbrouck (C. cynosuros), although some authorities still consider them as belonging to one species. Unlike the guenons, the ‘vervets’ spend much time on the ground in the daytime, sleeping in trees at night. They are also dependent on daily access to water.

At present, the patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) is the only species in the genus Erythrocebus, but as it is closely related to the ‘vervets’, further genetic studies may place them in the same genus.

 

 

The blue, or diademed, monkey (Cercopithecus mitis), in its broader sense, comprises 17 subspecies, of which Sykes’ monkey (C. m. albogularis), silver monkey (C. m. doggetti), and golden monkey (C. m. kandti) are sometimes treated as separate species. In its broader sense, this species is widely distributed, from Angola and Zaire eastwards to the Indian Ocean and Zanzibar Island, and from Ethiopia south to eastern South Africa, from sea level up to 3,800 m. It is threatened to some degree by deforestation and habitat fragmentation, and by hunting in places for food and traditional medicine.

 

Tanzania 1988
Tanzania 1988
Despite its name, the blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) is not really blue, but its grey fur has a bluish tinge to it. This one in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania, is feeding on swarming termites together with an olive baboon (Papio anubis). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The vervet (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) is distributed from Ethiopia and southern Somalia, south through Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, and Botswana to South Africa. It lives mainly in savanna and open woodland, almost always near rivers, but is extremely adaptable and able to survive in cultivated areas, and sometimes in towns. There are no major threats to this species, although many are shot in areas where they do damage to crops. It is also hunted as bushmeat in some areas.

 

Zimbabwe-Kenya 1994
Zimbabwe-Kenya 1994
Grooming troop of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe. Note the pale blue scrotum of the male. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), also called hussar monkey, is widespread across the Sahel zone of sub-Saharan Africa, from southern Mauritania, Gambia, and Senegal, east to western Ethiopia and northern Zaire, Uganda, and Kenya, with isolated populations elsewhere in Kenya, in northern Tanzania, and on the Air and Ennedi Massifs in the Sahara. This species is found in savannas and dry woodland, being commonest in woodland with scattered acacias. In some areas, the patas monkey is threatened by habitat loss due to increasing desertification. Occasionally, it is hunted for food or shot as a crop pest.

 

Afrika 1980-81
This sweet and gentle female patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) is for sale in the city of Bangui, Central African Republic. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Apes
The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the orangutans (Pongo), and the gorillas (Gorilla) are all apes, belonging to the family Pongidae. The chimpanzee and the bonobo are our nearest relatives – in fact, we are so closely related to them that we should belong to the same genus. As humans were described scientifically before the chimpanzee and the bonobo, they ought to be renamed Homo troglodytes and Homo paniscus, respectively!

All species of apes have been declining drastically in the last hundred years due to poaching, infectious diseases, and loss of habitat, caused by expanding human activities. Although conservation efforts have increased significantly in recent years, it is assumed that this decline will continue, due to the rapid growth of human populations, felling of forests, lack of law enforcement due to corruption, and political instability in some countries. Some animals are still caught for zoos, and many are shot for the commercial bushmeat trade in certain African countries.

 

 

The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), comprising 4 subspecies, has a discontinuous distribution from southern Senegal east across the forested belt north of the Congo River to extreme western Tanzania and Uganda, living in various types of forest, along rivers in savanna woodland, and sometimes in farmland, from the lowland up to app. 2,800 metres altitude. South of the Congo River, it is replaced by its near relative, the bonobo (P. paniscus). Today, the total population of the chimpanzee is probably less than 400,000 individuals.

 

Tanzania 1989
The chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), living in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, were made famous by celebrated primatologist Jane Goodall (born 1934) – the first person to study these apes in depth. This picture shows a large male in Gombe Stream, named Everett, photographed in 1989. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Formerly, orangutans were regarded as a single species, Pongo pygmaeus, confined to rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Lately, however, it has been split into three separate species. The Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus), comprising 3 subspecies, is still widespread in Borneo. The Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii) is restricted to northern Sumatra, mainly found in the Aceh Province. The Tapanuli orangutan (P. tapanuliensis), which lives in an area of just 1,500 km2 in Batang Toru, south of Lake Toba, Sumatra, was described as a distinct species in 2017. All three species live in lowland rainforest, rarely found above 500 metres altitude, the Sumatran orangutan occasionally up to c. 1,500 m.

All three species are seriously endangered due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, and illegal poaching for zoos. It has been estimated that the population of the Bornean orangutan in 1973 was about 300,000 individuals, and it is assumed that this number will decline to c. 50,000 by 2025. The Sumatran orangutan has an estimated population of fewer than 14,000, and it is predicted that this number will decline by 80% by 2060. The population of Tapanuli orangutan is fewer than 800, and this number is still decreasing.

 

Malaysia 1984-85
Malaysia 1984-85
Malaysia 1984-85
In 1985, I visited the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre in Sabah, Borneo, where orphaned orangutans are trained to a life in the wild (top). Lacking a mother, the orphaned young often become much attached to one another (centre). An adult male, now living in a semi-wild state near the centre (bottom). – Read more about the Sepilok Centre on this website, see Travel episodes: Borneo 1985 – Visiting orangutans. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Previously, gorillas were regarded as belonging to a single species, Gorilla gorilla, but have since been divided into two species, the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), with two subspecies, the lowland gorilla (G. g. gorilla) and the Cross River gorilla (G. g. diehli), and the eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei), likewise with two subspecies, the mountain gorilla (G. b. beringei) and Grauer’s gorilla (G. b. graueri).

The western gorilla is found in Cameroun, Central African Republic, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo, with tiny populations in eastern Nigeria and northern Angola. The population of the subspecies G. g. gorilla is probably around 250,000 individuals, whereas the subspecies G. g. diehli is seriously endangered, counting only about 300 individuals. The population reduction of the species, in its broader sense, is predicted to exceed 80% by 2070, due to illegal hunting, disease (Ebolavirus), and habitat loss.

The eastern gorilla lives in montane forests of eastern Zaire, north-western Rwanda, and south-western Uganda. This region has been subject to war and civil war for many decades, during which gorillas also fell victim. The subspecies G. b. beringei, which counts only about 900 individuals, is the only great ape that has increased in number lately, whereas the subspecies G. b. graueri has been severely affected by human activities, most notably poaching for commercial trade of bushmeat. This illegal hunting has been facilitated by a proliferation of firearms from the various wars of this region. Previously estimated to number around 17,000 individuals, recent surveys show that Grauer’s Gorilla numbers have dropped to only about 3,800 individuals.

There is an interesting story behind the name gorilla. The famous Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484-425 B.C.) relates sea travels, made by Phoenicians of Carthage, among these an expedition along the west coast of Africa c. 500 B.C., led by Hanno the Navigator. In an area, which is today Sierra Leone, members of this expedition encountered “savage people, the greater part of whom were women, whose bodies were hairy, and whom our interpreters called gorillae.” This word was later used by American physician and missionary Thomas Staughton Savage (1804-1880) and naturalist Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874), when they described the gorilla in 1847, calling it Troglodytes gorilla. (Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorilla)

 

Østafrika 1994-95
Østafrika 1994-95
The population of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei ssp. beringei) in Bwindi National Park, Uganda, is the only population of great apes on the planet, which has been increasing in numbers lately. The upper picture shows resting females, while the young one in the bottom picture approaches us to investigate. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Spider monkeys
Spider monkeys (Ateles) are a genus of seven species, belonging to the family Atelidae. They are found from southern Mexico south to Brazil, living in the upper stratum of tropical forests. These monkeys are characterized by their disproportionately long limbs, which have given them their name, and their long, prehensile tail, which is used as a fifth limb. They live in bands, comprising up to 35 members, which will disperse during the day to feed. All species of spider monkeys are threatened due to habitat destruction and hunting for food, and two species, the black-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps) and the brown spider monkey (A. hybridus), are critically endangered.

 

 

Six subspecies of Geoffroy’s spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), also called black-handed or Central American spider monkey, are distributed from south-eastern Mexico east to Panama. This species mainly occurs in evergreen rainforest and can also be found in deciduous forest. It is threatened due to habitat loss, which has been severe across its entire range. It is estimated that the species has declined by as much as 50% during the last 50 years. Today, it mainly survives in protected areas.

 

Guatemala 1998
This young Yucatan spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi ssp. yucatanensis) in Tikal National Park, Guatemala, is clinging to its mother’s back. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Costa Rica-2
Costa Rica-2
A red-bellied spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi ssp. frontatus), also called black-browed spider monkey, feeding on coffee-like fruits, Tortuguero National Park, Limón, Costa Rica. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Baboons
Baboons, of the family Cercopithecidae, are native to Africa and south-western Arabia. They have long, dog-like muzzles, close-set eyes, and powerful jaws with huge canine teeth. The baboons proper, comprising six species, belong to the genus Papio. Formerly, three other species were included in Papio, but have since been moved to other genera, the gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada), the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), and the drill (M. leucophaeus). Some authorities regard the six Papio species as belonging to a single species, as they often interbreed in overlapping areas of distribution. The six species are the Guinea baboon (Papio papio), found in a rather small area from southern Mauritania south to Guinea; the hamadryas baboon (P. hamadryas), which lives around the African Horn, in Ethiopia, and in south-western Arabia; the olive baboon (P. anubis) (see below); the yellow baboon (P. cynocephalus) (see below); the Kinda baboon (P. kindae), which occurs in south-western Tanzania, southern Zaire, western Zambia, and northern Angola; and the chacma baboon (P. ursinus), which is found in southern Africa.

 

 

The olive baboon (Papio anubis) is named after its coat, which is grey with an olive tinge to it. It is the most extensively distributed of the baboons, ranging throughout woodland and savanna, from southern Mauritania and Mali eastwards to the Sudan, and thence southwards to Zaire and Tanzania. There are also isolated populations in the Tibesti and Air Massifs in the Sahara. This species is very adaptable, able to survive in secondary forest and cultivated areas. It is locally common, despite being regarded as a pest, which is trapped, shot, and poisoned in places. In a 200-km wide region in central Kenya, it hybridizes with the yellow baboon (P. cyanocephalus), often making it difficult to allocate animals to one or the other species. The olive baboon is also called Anubis baboon, named after the Egyptian god of embalming, who had the head of a jackal. The name refers to the dog-like muzzle of baboons.

 

Tanzania 1993
Young olive baboon (Papio anubis), riding on its mother’s back, Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania. This species is named after its coat, which is grey with an olive tinge to it. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Tanzania 1993
Tanzania 1993
Motherhood among olive baboons, Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania: A subordinate female approaches another female with a tiny young, exposing its behind to the mother as a sign of submission, after which it is allowed to touch the baby. Note that the older female’s cheek pouches are filled with food. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Tanzania 1989
Young olive baboons (Papio anubis), playing in a vine, Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The specific name of the yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) is from the Greek kuon = dog, and kephalos = head, like the name Anubis (see olive baboon) referring to the dog-like muzzle of baboons. Its common name alludes to its grey fur, which has a yellowish tinge to it. This species is found from south-eastern Ethiopia and Somalia, south to northern Mozambique, and thence across Malawi and Zambia to southern Zaire and northern Angola. Where possible, it lives in Brachystegia woodland (miombo), but is also found in scrubland, savanna, and mangrove, and is able to survive in secondary forest and cultivated areas. There are no major threats to this species, although in some places it has been displaced by agriculture. Many are also trapped to be exported for medical research.

 

Tanzania 1989
Yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus), Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. The common name of this species alludes to its grey fur, which has a yellowish tinge to it. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Sydlige Afrika 1993
The chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) lives in southern Africa. This sign in Cape of Good Hope National Park, South Africa, prohibits feeding of baboons. Where they are fed regularly by tourists, baboons often become aggressive and may have to be shot. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) is restricted to high grassland escarpments along deep gorges of central Ethiopia, between 1,800 and 4,400 metres altitude. The generic name Theropithecus is from the Greek thero = beastly, and pithekos = monkey, referring to the rather grotesque appearance of the male of this species. In Greek mythology, Thero was a fierce Naiad, who was the nurse of the infant Ares, who later became god of war, courage, and civil order. The gelada is still widespread, but was much affected by droughts, which ravaged Ethiopia in the 1980s. From an estimated population of maybe 800,000 individuals, a present guesstimate says c. 200,000. Its habitat is being eroded as a result of agricultural expansion, as an increasing number of people are moving into the central highlands. In some areas, the grazing pressure is high, forcing the geladas to move to less productive grass slopes.

 

Ethiopien 1996
In the Simien Mountains, the gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) is fairly common in some areas, here at Gosh Meda. The male has a huge mane on head and body. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Ethiopien 1996
On the chest, males as well as females have a naked red skin patch, giving rise to an alternative name of the species, bleeding-heart monkey. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Monkeys and culture
In many countries, especially in India, monkeys play an important role in folklore and culture. These pictures show a few examples.

 

 

Indien 2003
Carving in a Jain temple atop the rock Vindyagiri, Sravanabelagola, Karnataka, India, depicting a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), embracing a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Taiwan 2014
Taiwan 2014
Taiwan 2014
Taiwan 2014
In Taichung, Taiwan, these acrobats, dressed as monkeys, are performing various acts, such as walking on stilts while balancing eggs on a stick, and jumping through burning rings. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Costa Rica-2
This sign outside a tour agency in Tortuguero National Park, Limón, Costa Rica, advertising jungle trips, uses a white-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus) and a great curassow (Crax rubra) as eye-catchers. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
Sydindien 2000-01
Street entertainer with performing rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Delhi, India (top), and another street entertainer in the city of Tirumalai, Andhra Pradesh, who has caught two young bonnet macaques (M. radiata), training them to perform. They seem to be arguing about something. – In the old days, in Europe, similar entertainers, the organ grinders, would often perform with white-headed capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Bali 2009
Sculpture in a Hindu temple in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia, depicting smiling long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). – More pictures of monkey sculptures are found on this website, see Culture: Folk art around the world. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Costa Rica-2
Wall painting in Tortuguero National Park, Limón, Costa Rica, depicting a golden-mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata ssp. palliata) and a brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), with the following slogan, ‘Tortuguero es pura vida’ (‘Tortuguero is pure life’). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Hanuman, the monkey god
In Hinduism, Rama is the seventh incarnation of the supreme god Vishnu, and main character in the great epic Ramayana. He was born as the son of King Dasharatha, who ruled the Kingdom of Koshada, northern India, and the king’s first wife, Queen Kausalya, and was thus destined to take over the kingdom in due time. However, in a moment of thoughtlessness, his father promised one of his other wives that her son should inherit the throne for 14 years, and that Rama should be expelled from the kingdom in this period. Rama knew of no other law than to obey his father, and he spent his exile wandering about in the forests with his chosen one, Sita, and his half-brother, Lakshmana.

One day, Sita was abducted by Ravana, a ten-headed and twenty-armed demon king from Sri Lanka. Hanuman, who was the leader of the monkey army, was a supporter of Rama, and he volunteered to go to Sri Lanka to negotiate Sita’s release. It is told that during his stay, Hanuman stole mango fruits. For this sin, Ravana ordered him to be burned. Ravana’s soldiers tied a rag, soaked in oil, to his tail and set fire to it. During his attempt to extinguish the fire, Hanuman’s face and hands were blackened by the fire. The episode was noticed by the god of fire, Agni, who protected Hanuman from the heat, while the flaming tail, in retaliation, set many houses on fire. An enormous leap brought Hanuman back to India. During the final battle, Rama managed to kill the evil demon king, and Sita was released. When the 14 years of exile had passed, Rama went home and assumed his throne.

As a reward for his services, Hanuman was raised to become a deity. He inspires strength in people, making him popular among men, while women generally regard him with mistrust, because he is unmarried. Due to the great deeds, performed by the monkey army in the Ramayana, monkeys are considered sacred among Hindus, and troops of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), or grey langurs (Semnopithecus) often live around temples, where part of their diet consists of rice, sweets, or other edibles, brought as offerings by devout Hindus.

The legend informs us that Hanuman is a langur, which has black face and hands, and thus not a macaque, which is uniformly brown. Nevertheless, macaques are sacred animals on par with langurs.

The following 10 pictures show aspects of monkeys, referring to the Ramayana or to Hinduism.

 

Indien 1994
Sculpture in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, depicting the monkey god Hanuman, carrying Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders, while trampling a demon. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indonesien 1985
The Balinese Keçak Dance (‘Monkey Dance’) depicts a scene from the Ramayana. Rama’s fiancée Sita has been abducted to Sri Lanka by the demon king Ravana, and Hanuman’s monkey army is trying to rescue her. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Cambodia 2009
This detail of a Khmer relief in Banteay Srei, Angkor, Cambodia, depicts another scene from the Ramayana. The demon king Ravana is shaking the abode of the Hindu gods, Mount Kailash, making gods and animals horror-stricken, here Hanuman, a lion-headed deity, and the elephant-headed god Ganesh. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
This sculpture outside a Hindu temple near Ubud, Bali, Indonesia, depicting Hanuman, is covered in green algae and lichens. Rice and flowers have been brought to the image as an offering. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nepal 2009a
Over the years, the features of this sculpture of Hanuman at the Pashupatinath Temple, Kathmandu, Nepal, have become blurred due to a thick layer of orange sindur (red powder, mixed with mustard oil), applied by devout Hindus during puja (worship). (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Bali 2009
This sculpture, depicting a warrior in Hanuman’s army, is guarding outside the Holy Water Temple in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Nepal 1991
Due to the great deeds, performed by the monkey army in the Ramayana, monkeys are considered sacred, and troops of monkeys often live around temples. This female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and her young are feeding on rice grain, presented as offerings at Swayambhunath, Kathmandu, Nepal – a Buddhist stupa, which also contains Hindu shrines. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Sydindien 2000-01
Whereas the temple monkeys in northern India are mostly rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), this role is taken over by bonnet macaques (M. radiata) in southern Indian temples. This picture is from the Sri Minakshi Temple in Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Temple monkeys often become obese, as they have easy access to food and don’t move much around. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

Indien 2003
Like a bunch of street urchins, these southern plains langurs (Semnopithecus dussumieri) are sitting on a roof top in the town of Pushkar, Rajasthan, India, from where they survey the surroundings for fruit or other edibles to steal. Their status as sacred animals ensure that they are not harmed, despite their impudence. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

(Uploaded March 2018)

 

(Revised April 2018)