Camels

 

 

Indien 2003
The dromedary, or one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), was probably first domesticated around 3000 B.C. – Camel rider, Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Kina 1987
The Bactrian, or two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus), was probably domesticated around 2500 B.C. – Chengdu Zoo, Sichuan Province, China. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

The earliest known camelid, Protylopus, was about the size of a rabbit and lived in North America 40 to 50 million years ago. About 10 million years later, other camelids had evolved, among these Poebrotherium, an animal the size of a goat and somewhat resembling today’s camels and llamas. The direct ancestor of modern camels, Procamelus, lived around 5 million years ago, spreading to South America via the newly formed Isthmus of Panama, where it evolved into the llama, the guanaco, and the vicuña, and via a Bering land bridge to Asia, where it evolved into true camels. The last native camel in North America was Camelops hesternus, which, together with a host of other animals, such as mastodon, saber-toothed cat, and horse, in all probability were extirpated by nomadic hunters, which had migrated here via the latest Bering land bridge, about 12,000 years ago.

The true camels, which evolved in Asia, are characterized by their distinctive fatty deposits on their back, called the hump. Three species are recognized. The dromedary, or one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), is extinct in the wild, but is widely distributed as a domestic animal, from India across the Middle East to the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Somalia, and northern Kenya. The Bactrian, or two-humped camel (C. bactrianus), which is also extinct in the wild, is found in the Central Asian highlands and Iran, but in much lower numbers than the dromedary. These two species are closely related, as they are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. A widely accepted theory today is that both these species evolved from a third species, the wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus), which lives in a few scattered herds in Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet, the total population probably being fewer than a thousand individuals. It is thus critically endangered and may soon go extinct.

The dromedary was probably first domesticated around 3000 B.C. in Somalia or southern Arabia, while the first domestication of the Bactrian camel in Central Asia is believed to have taken place around 2500 B.C. The reason for their successful survival as domesticated animals lies in their ability to thrive in areas with a hot and dry climate, being able to survive for long periods of time without access to drinking water. Thus, they were very useful for transporting goods across deserts. Camels can lose a third of their body weight due to dehydration without any harm. When they do have access to water, they are able to drink an unbelievable amount of it. It has been recorded that one camel, weighing about 600 kilograms, drank about 200 litres in a few minutes. Camels do not store water in their hump as was formerly believed. The hump is fatty tissue, and the reason for the storage of fat here is that the animal is better able to withstand a hot climate without an insulating layer of fat distributed over the entire body.

Besides being pack animals, transporting goods and people, camels provide meat and milk, bags are produced from their skin, and textiles from their fur. A former, rather special utilization of the dromedary was camel cavalries, used by armed forces in desert warfare, mostly as a means of transportation, as horses didn’t thrive in these dry conditions. Fighting also sometimes took place from camel-back, initially with spears and bows, and later with rifles.

 

 

Indien 2003
Camels can lose a third of their body weight due to dehydration without any harm. When they do have access to water, they are able to drink an unbelievable amount of it. – This picture is from the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1985-86
Camels have broad, flat, leathery pads under their feet – an adaptation to avoid sinking into soft sand. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 2003
Nordindien 1991
At an early stage, camels were used for transporting goods across deserts. These pictures are from the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1985-86
The Gujjars, a tribe of pastoral Muslim nomads, who live in the Indian Himalaya, utilize camels as a means of transportation. Although the Rajaji area, Uttarakhand, was declared a national park in 1993, the Gujjars still live here. Foresters have pointed out that these people should be banned from grazing their animals in the park, but, ironically, they seem to benefit wildlife here, as they keep poachers away from the area. For instance, the number of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the park has increased in later years. The Gujjars themselves do not harm wildlife, as they are vegetarians. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
This dromedary is pulling a cart, laden with yarn, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
Camels are ruminants. This camel in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India, is chewing the cud. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
In winter, when she camels in Rajasthan, India, are in heat, bull camels in rut often emit a gargling roar, blowing up their tongue and letting it hang out of the mouth, smeared in pink saliva, which is flying all over the place. Our camel drivers made this comment: “The camel is sexy.” (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 1994
The gestation period of camels are 360 to 420 days. This picture shows mating dromedaries at a breeding centre for camels in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 1994
Dromedary foals, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. The weight of a newborn foal varies between 35 and 40 kilograms. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
Dromedaries are often very affectionate. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
Camel caravans are history, but you can get a feel of the daily life of caravans by going on a camel safari. – Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Asien 1977-78
Dromedary, dressed up for transporting tourists, Petra, Jordan. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 1994
Indien 1994
Camel festivals are held annually several places in the Tahr Desert, Rajasthan, India. These pictures show decorated dromedaries at a festival in Bikaner. The lower picture shows elaborate patterns, which have been cut in the fur of a camel. (Photos copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 1994
During a camel festival in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India, musicians and a dancing camel are a part of the entertainment. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 1994
How many people can a dromedary carry? – Competition during a camel festival in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Nordindien 1991
During the Hindu festival of Holi, or ‘Festival of Colours’, this camel rider has been smeared in dyed powder. – Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

Indien 1994
This frieze in the Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, depicting camels, was carved around 1000 A.D. (Photo copyright © by Kaj Halberg)

 

 

(Uploaded September 2017)